Friday, September 30, 2016

CPR shows by a child and Monitor the Television shows and computer surf your Children are watching

credit/source: and Health & Safety This video really shows on how you behave and what you say or do eventually, it will be projected and absorbed by the children.

What a reminder that babies really are watching our every movement.

If I may share my experience when my youngest son was barely one year old. One afternoon I was watching an action movie in HBO cable channel I thought he was still sleeping I did not notice he stood up quietly in his crib and watching the television only when I noticed him when his fingers making a form of gun pointing I quickly turned off the television since then I choose the shows I watched whether my children are around or not. Since my eldest and youngest son almost 7 years age difference they really love action,cartoons and wrestling shows although I make sure they are only watching informative shows during Saturdays when they were young they try to watch wrestling despite my warning not to watch it so if I catch them watching it in their room I remove the cable wire connected to their television. I also noticed we thought us parents that cartoons are better than any shows for children they are not because cartoons are more violent if you watch it closely.,thinking it is funny for the children it is not. And when it is feeding time for the kids and infants turn off the television or computer/laptop instead play music when they are eating do not allow them to eat in front of the television only around in your dining table. Today my sons both love manga,anime and games then my eldest son who used to be a picky eater now only a little bit but still picky. We still voiced out/discussed our political and general information views For short, I taught them to think and be liberal. Both of them I trained them to be a book worm but only my eldest becomes one so I call him a walking encyclopedia then my youngest does not read that much. They have different study habits but maintains high grades until my eldest son graduated in college and passed the board exam without enrolling in a review center while my youngest son is now in college and scholar in a state college.This semester my eldest son enrolled again in college taking up units required in B.S. Education. He can work abroad if he wants to but he opted not to instead he works in a NGO. His previous employments call him every now and then to go back anytime to work again in their company. You will adjust to each and every child you have what suit to the other may not be suitable to the other child because they are different and unique as a person although they are your children. I must admit my husband and I were more strict to our eldest son than our youngest son and as I observed he matures better than my second/youngest son. And lastly, even if you are busy and tired please read them books everyday more so when they are starting to read and pray with them before going to sleep.

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

How To Use Baking Soda For Gorgeous Face And Skin

The remedy has been used to treat rashes and skin problems and as a peeling for centuries. Continue reading below to see 3 amazing ways in which you can use baking soda to improve the quality of your skin.

                                                            Baking soda and water
A mixture of baking soda and water is great for exfoliating the skin and keeping your skin healthy. Mix some baking soda and water until you make a paste, then apply it on a clean face and leave it to dry. Rinse with warm water afterwards.
You can also make a paste of baking soda and ground oats and water, then apply it on your face to exfoliate it and remove the dark circles under your eyes. Rinse with warm water in the end and you will be amazed by the results!

Baking soda and lemon
This amazing remedy acts as a disinfectant and exfoliate that will tone your complexion. Mix 2 tablespoons of baking soda and 2 tablespoons of granulated brown sugar in a cup, then add a ¼ of lemon juice. Mix everything well and apply the remedy on wet skin. Let it work for 10 minutes then rinse with lukewarm water in the end.

Baking soda and coconut oil
Coconut oil is great for the skin as it hydrates it and keeps it moist. It can prevent inflammation as well, and mixed with baking soda it creates a powerful remedy that will make you skin soft like never before.
Mix equal parts of baking soda and coconut oil, then apply the paste on your skin and rinse with lukewarm water after a few minutes.

Saturday, September 24, 2016

12 things to know about the 2016 autumnal equinox

photo credit:CC BY 2.0 Wikiphoto
Well hello, fall.
Even though it happens year after year, the arrival of autumn is always a little surprising. Almost as if on a switch, one day late in the summer you feel it – a subtle crispness in the air. And before you know it, it’s pumpkin-spice-everything everywhere. We are suddenly swathed in sweaters and wearing boots and bombarded by shades of orange, often even before the thermometer warrants it. After slogging through a long hot August, it's exciting.
We can thank the autumnal equinox for this shift from sultry summer to cozy fall. And while most of us are aware of when the first day of autumn lands on the calendar, there’s more to the equinox than meets the eye. Consider the following.
1. This year, the autumnal equinox arrives precisely at 10:21 a.m. (EDT) on Thursday, September 22. Unlike an event like New Year’s midnight that follows the clock around the time zones, equinoxes happen at the same moment everywhere.
2. There are two equinoxes annually, vernal and autumnal, marking the beginning of spring and fall. They are opposite for the northern and southern hemispheres.
3. The autumnal equinox happens the moment the sun crosses the celestial equator, which is an imaginary line in the sky that corresponds to Earth’s equator. (Old Farmer's Almanac describes it as a plane of Earth’s equator projected out onto the sphere.) Every year this occurs on September 22, 23, or 24 in the northern hemisphere.
4. From hereon, the days get shorter until the winter solstice in December, when the light will begin its slow climb back to long summer days. Winter solstice is technically the shortest day of the year, while the summer solstice in June boasts the most sunlight. Hence, the four season, as illustrated below.
Seasonsphoto credit:Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 2.05. Because it takes the Earth around 365.25 days to orbit the Sun – and why we have a leap year every 4 years – the precise time of the equinoxes varies from year to year, usually happening around six hours later on successive years. On leap years, the date jumps back an entire day.
6. “Equinox” comes from the Latin words “equi” meaning “equal” and “nox” meaning “night.” This implies that there will be equal amounts of daylight and darkness, however such is not exactly the case.
7. This year, the sun will rise at 6:44 a.m. EDT on the equinox and will set at 6:52 p.m., giving us 8 minutes of day over night. Although the sun is perfectly over the equator, we mark sunrises and sunsets at the first and last minute the tip of the disk appears. Also, because of atmospheric refraction, light is bent which makes it appear like the sun is rising or setting earlier.
8. Exactly equal day and night won’t happen until September 25 with sunrise as 6:47 a.m. EDT and sunset at 6:47 p.m. This day is known as the equilux! ("Lux" being Latin for light, isn't that pretty?)
9. For the astrology-minded, the morning of the autumnal equinox is when the sun enters Libra ... the sign of balanced scales. Equal day and night, balanced scales, seeing a connection here...
10. As for the other celestial orb we obsess on, the full moon near the autumnal equinox is called the Harvest Moon for the luminosity that affords farmers the ability to work late. It's also been called the Full Corn Moon (see: Full moon names and what they mean). The 2016 Harvest Moon did her magic on September 16 this year, a day which also hosted a partial lunar eclipse.
11. In China the September equinox is celebrated during the Mid-Autumn Festival, also known as the Moon Festival. The bounty of summer’s harvest is celebrated and the festivities are rampant with moon cakes, round pastries made from bean paste and other sweet and/or savory ingredients.
Moon cakecredit photo:Wee Keat Chin/Flickr/CC BY 2.012. This year on the equinox, as happens every year, the sun will rise precisely due East and will set precisely due West. Everywhere on Earth, except at the North and South Poles, there is a due east and due west point on the horizon; by observing the sun as it travels along this path on September 22, no matter where you are, you can see where that point it for your location. Pick a landmark, make a mental note, and enjoy the knowledge that while so much in this world is in flux, the sun is constant and will return to its perfect East and West on the days of equinox.
This updated article for 2016 was originally published in 2015.
credit/by: Melissa Breyer

Friday, September 23, 2016

Google’s new Trips app takes the stress out of planning vacations


It’s basically a giant travel guide and itinerary maker for trips to various locations around the world. Tell the app where you want to go, download the guide for offline use, and start planning. The app can also pull information like flight itineraries and hotel reservations right from your Gmail.

Google Trips is a personalized tour guide in your pocket. Each trip contains key categories of information, including day plans, reservations, things to do, food & drink, and more, so you have everything you need at your fingertips. The entire app is available offline — simply tap the “Download” button under each trip to save it to your phone.

The app features various sample itineraries for the ‘top 200’ cities in the world, including popular sights and attractions deemed interesting by other travelers. Of course, you can make custom itineraries too; tap the ‘+’ button on the ‘day plan’ tile to select attractions from a map view. Trips will number each location on the map so you have everything neat and organized.

Each trip guide is divided into numerous sections. For instance, a ‘Getting around’ section provides information such as how to leave the airport once your flight lands, public transport, and local taxi, ridesharing and rental options.

Meanwhile ‘Things to do’ shows popular locations, tailored suggestions, indoor and outdoor events. There’s also a selection of “farther away” places should you be willing to travel a bit more, as well as an alphabetical list of highlights. Other sections include ‘Reservations,’ ‘Food & Drink,’ and ‘Need to know.’
I can’t tell you how many hours I’ve spent planning out sightseeing for various trips, so having all the information I need in a single app sounds like a godsend. Heck, I might even use the app for discovering new places right here in my hometown of New York City.

Vacations are a chance to recharge and experience new places and cultures. For your next trip, let us help you see all the sights you want to see, without all the work. Google Trips, available now on Android and iOS, has you covered from departure to return.
Posted by Stefan Frank, Product Manager, Google Trips

Thursday, September 22, 2016

FDC Misamis Power Corporation (FDC Misamis)- 2nd power plant to help boost power supply in Mindanao

FDC’s 2nd power plant to help boost power supply in Mindanao
The biggest power plant in Mindanao by FDC Misamis Power Corporation goes online to help ensure the supply of reliable and competitively-priced power for the region. FDC Misamis is a subsidiary of FDC Utilities, Inc. and a member of Gotianun’s Filinvest Development Corporation. CONTRIBUTED PHOTO
Filinvest’s Misamis Power Plant with a combined capacity of 405 MW (3 X 135 MW), now considered as the biggest power plant in Mindanao, has been completed.

FDC Misamis Power Corporation (FDC Misamis) has announced that the second unit of its 405 MW flagship project has been successfully synchronized to the Mindanao grid, only a month after its first unit went online. The third unit is scheduled for synchronization by the first half of September. This is the first plant to be commissioned under the Duterte administration.

“To date, FDC Misamis has a generating capacity of 270 MW and is currently supplying over 200 MW into the Mindanao grid. So far, the commissioning test has been running smoothly and we expect to attain the full capacity of 405 MW by this month,” said Mario Pangilinan, President and Chief Operating Officer of FDC Utilities, Inc.

Located in the PHIVIDEC Industrial Estate in Villanueva, Misamis Oriental, the power plant is a multi- billion peso investment that uses the latest in clean coal technology–the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler technology. Considered as the cleanest process to burning coal, the technology is also known for having higher steam generator efficiency, thus lowering carbon emissions.

“The operation of the FDC Misamis power project will greatly boost the supply security in the Mindanao region. And this is not only because of its large capacity but also due to its strategic connection to the grid. With this development, our system will be more reliable and the quality of service will be higher,” said Ambrocio Rosales, OIC Head of Mindanao System Operations Department of NGCP.

Pangilinan added, “Mindanao has been suffering from perennial power crisis for decades, given its high dependence on hydro power compounded by the increasing frequency of the El Niño phenomenon. Our project will finally put an end to this recurring power crisis that has plagued the region and hopefully drive the much needed economic development in Mindanao.”

Upon commissioning of its third unit, FDC Misamis will be supplying a total of about 500 MW with the inclusion of its 100 MW Apo Geothermal IPPA contract. Long-term contractual commitments have been secured for more than 85 percent of the project’s net capacity with various distribution utilities and large industrial customers in Mindanao.

“The entire Filinvest group is committed to Mindanao’s development. This is the biggest investment we have made among the numerous ventures we have undertaken in the region,” Jonathan Gotianun, Chairman of Filinvest Development Corp. (FDC) commented. Filinvest also has significant investments in real estate, banking and sugar in Mindanao.

FDC, the holding company of the Gotianun-led Filinvest Group, is one of the Philippines’ leading conglomerates with interests in property development, banking and financial services, hotel and resort management, power generation and the sugar industry. As of June 30, 2016, FDC had assets valued at P448.56 billion with stockholders’ equity at P100.54 billion.

By: Doris Dumlao-Abadilla

UPDATE: President Duterte speaks at the inauguration of the FDC power plant today September 22, 2016
source: The Philippine Star

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Chromium Compounds Hazard Summary-Created in April 1992

Hazard Summary-Created in April 1992; Revised in January 2000

Chromium occurs in the environment primarily in two valence states, trivalent chromium (Cr III) and hexavalent chromium (Cr VI).  Exposure may occur from natural or industrial sources of chromium.  Chromium III is much less toxic than chromium (VI).  The respiratory tract is also the major target organ for chromium (III) toxicity, similar to chromium (VI). Chromium (III) is an essential element in humans.  The body can detoxify some amount of chromium (VI) to chromium (III).
The respiratory tract is the major target organ for chromium (VI) toxicity, for acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) inhalation exposures. Shortness of breath, coughing, and wheezing were reported from a case of acute exposure to chromium (VI), while perforations and ulcerations of the septum, bronchitis, decreased pulmonary function, pneumonia, and other respiratory effects have been noted from chronic exposure.  Human studies have clearly established that inhaled chromium (VI) is a human carcinogen, resulting in an increased risk of lung cancer.  Animal studies have shown chromium (VI) to cause lung tumors via inhalation exposure.

Please Note: The main sources of information for this fact sheet are EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), which contains information on inhalation chronic toxicity and the RfC and oral chronic toxicity and the RfD, and the carcinogenic effects of chromium including the unit cancer risk for inhalation exposure, EPA's Toxicological Review of Trivalent Chromium and Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) Toxicological Profile for Chromium.


  • The metal chromium is used mainly for making steel and other alloys. (1)
  • Chromium compounds, in either the chromium (III) or chromium (VI) forms, are used for chrome plating, the manufacture of dyes and pigments, leather and wood preservation, and treatment of cooling tower water.  Smaller amounts are used in drilling muds, textiles, and toner for copying machines. (1)

Sources and Potential Exposure

  • Chromium is a naturally occurring element in rocks, animals, plants, soil, and volcanic dust and gases. (1)
  • Chromium occurs in the environment predominantly in one of two valence states: trivalent chromium (Cr III), which occurs naturally and is an essential nutrient, and hexavalent chromium (Cr VI), which, along with the less common metallic chromium (Cr 0), is most commonly produced by industrial processes. (1)
  • Chromium (III) is essential to normal glucose, protein, and fat metabolism and is thus an essential dietary element.  The body has several systems for reducing chromium (VI) to chromium (III).  This chromium (VI) detoxification leads to increased levels of chromium (III). (1)
  • Air emissions of chromium are predominantly of trivalent chromium, and in the form of small particles or aerosols. (1,2)
  • The most important industrial sources of chromium in the atmosphere are those related to ferrochrome production.  Ore refining, chemical and refractory processing, cement-producing plants, automobile brake lining and catalytic converters for automobiles, leather tanneries, and chrome pigments also contribute to the atmospheric burden of chromium. (3)
  • The general population is exposed to chromium (generally chromium [III]) by eating food, drinking water, and inhaling air that contains the chemical. The average daily intake from air, water, and food is estimated to be less than 0.2 to 0.4 micrograms (µg), 2.0 µg, and 60 µg, respectively. (1)
  • Dermal exposure to chromium may occur during the use of consumer products that contain chromium, such as wood treated with copper dichromate or leather tanned with chromic sulfate. (1)
  • Occupational exposure to chromium occurs from chromate production, stainless-steel production, chrome plating, and working in tanning industries; occupational exposure can be two orders of magnitude higher than exposure to the general population. (1)
  • People who live in the vicinity of chromium waste disposal sites or chromium manufacturing and processing plants have a greater probability of elevated chromium exposure than the general population.  These exposures are generally to mixed chromium (VI) and chromium (III). (1)

Assessing Personal Exposure

  • Laboratory tests can detect chromium in the blood, urine, and hair of exposed individuals. (1,5)
  • In many cases analysis is done for total chromium because it is difficult to differentiate between chromium VI and chromium III in tests. (1)

Health Hazard Information

Acute Effects:
Chromium VI
  • Chromium (VI) is much more toxic than chromium (III), for both acute and chronic exposures. (1,3,4)
  • The respiratory tract is the major target organ for chromium (VI) following inhalation exposure in humans.  Shortness of breath, coughing, and wheezing were reported in cases where an individual inhaled very high concentrations of chromium trioxide. (1,4)
  • Other effects noted from acute inhalation exposure to very high concentrations of chromium (VI) include gastrointestinal and neurological effects, while dermal exposure causes skin burns in humans. (1,4,5)
  • Ingestion of high amounts of chromium (VI) causes gastrointestinal effects in humans and animals, including abdominal pain, vomiting, and hemorrhage. (1)
  • Acute animal tests have shown chromium (VI) to have extreme toxicity from inhalation and oral exposure. (1,6)
Chromium III
  • Chromium (III) is an essential element in humans, with a daily intake of 50 to 200 µg/d recommended for adults. (1)
  • Acute animal tests have shown chromium (III) to have moderate toxicity from oral exposure. (1,6)
Chronic Effects (Noncancer)
Chromium VI
  • Chronic inhalation exposure to chromium (VI) in humans results in effects on the respiratory tract, with perforations and ulcerations of the septum, bronchitis, decreased pulmonary function, pneumonia, asthma, and nasal itching and soreness reported. (1,4,5)
  • Chronic human exposure to high levels of chromium (VI) by inhalation or oral exposure may produce effects on the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal and immune systems, and possibly the blood. (1,4,5)
  • Rat studies have shown that, following inhalation exposure, the lung and kidney have the highest tissue levels of chromium. (1,4,5)
  • Dermal exposure to chromium (VI) may cause contact dermatitis, sensitivity, and ulceration of the skin. (1,4,5)
  • The Reference Concentration (RfC) for chromium (VI) (particulates) is 0.0001 mg/mbased on respiratory effects in rats.  The RfC is an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a continuous inhalation exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects during a lifetime.  It is not a direct estimator of risk but rather a reference point to gauge the potential effects. At exposures increasingly greater than theRfC, the potential for adverse health effects increases.  Lifetime exposure above the RfC does not imply that an adverse health effect would necessarily occur. (7)
  • EPA has medium confidence in the RfC for chromium VI (particulates) based on medium confidence in the study on which it was based because of uncertainties regarding upper respiratory tract, reproductive, and renal effects resulting from the exposures. (7)
  • The Reference Concentration (RfC) for chromium (VI) (chromic acid mists and dissolved Cr (VI) aerosols) is 0.000008 mg/m3 based on respiratory effects in humans. (7)
  • EPA has low confidence in the RfC based on low confidence in the study on which the RfC for chromium (VI) (chromic acid mists and dissolved Cr (VI) aerosols) is based.  This is because of (1) the uncertainties regarding the exposure characterization and the role of direct contact for the critical effect; and (2) low confidence in the supporting studies which are equally uncertain regarding the exposure characterization. (7)
  • The Reference Dose (RfD) for chromium (VI) is 0.003 mg/kg/d based on the exposure at which no effects were noted in rats exposed to chromium in the drinking water. (7)
  • EPA has low confidence in the RfD based on: low confidence in the study on which the RfD for chromium (VI) was based because a small number of animals were tested, a small number of parameters were measured, and no toxic effects were noted at the highest dose tested; and low confidence in the database because the supporting studies are of equally low quality and developmental endpoints are not well studied. (7)
Chromium III
  • Although data from animal studies have identified the respiratory tract as the major target organ for chronic chromium exposure, these data do not demonstrate that the effects observed following inhalation of chromium (VI) particulates are relevant to inhalation of chromium (III). (8)
  • EPA has not established an RfC for chromium (III). (8)
  • The RfD for chromium (III) is 1.5 mg/kg/d based on the exposure level at which no effects were observed in rats exposed to chromium (III) in the diet. (8)
  • EPA has low confidence in the RfD based on: low confidence in the study on which the RfD for chromium (III) was based due to the lack of explicit detail on study protocol and results; and low confidence in the database due to the lack of high-dose supporting data. (8)
Reproductive/Developmental Effects:
Chromium VI
  • Limited information on the reproductive effects of chromium (VI) in humans exposed by inhalation suggest that exposure to chromium (VI) may result in complications during pregnancy and childbirth. (1)
  • Animal studies have not reported reproductive or developmental effects from inhalation exposure to chromium (VI).  Oral studies have reported severe developmental effects in mice such as gross abnormalities and reproductive effects including decreased litter size, reduced sperm count, and degeneration of the outer cellular layer of the seminiferous tubules. (1,4)
Chromium III
  • No information is available on the reproductive or developmental effects of chromium (III) in humans. (3)
  • A study of mice fed high levels of chromium (III) in their drinking water has suggested a potential for reproductive effects, although various study characteristics preclude a definitive finding. (3)
  • No developmental effects were reported in the offspring of rats fed chromium (III) during their developmental period. (1,3)
Cancer Risk:
Chromium VI
  • Epidemiological studies of workers have clearly established that inhaled chromium is a human carcinogen, resulting in an increased risk of lung cancer. Although chromium-exposed workers were exposed to both chromium (III) and chromium (VI) compounds, only chromium (VI) has been found to be carcinogenic in animal studies, so EPA has concluded that only chromium (VI) should be classified as a human carcinogen. (1,7)
  • Animal studies have shown chromium (VI) to cause lung tumors via inhalation exposure. (1,5)
  • EPA has classified chromium (VI) as a Group A, known human carcinogen by the inhalation route of exposure. (7)
  • EPA used a mathematical model, based on data from an occupational study of chromate production workers, to estimate the probability of a person developing cancer from continuously breathing air containing a specified concentration of chromium.  EPA calculated an inhalation unit risk estimate of 1.2 × 10-2 (µg/m3)-1.  EPA estimates that, if an individual were to continuously breathe air containing chromium at an average of 0.00008 µg/m3 (8 x 10-8 mg/m3) over his or her entire lifetime, that person would theoretically have no more than a one-in-a-million increased risk of developing cancer. Similarly, EPA estimates that continuously breathing air containing 0.0008 µg/m3 (8 x 10-7 mg/m3) would result in not greater than a one-in-a-hundred thousand increased risk of developing cancer during one's lifetime, and air containing 0.008 µg/m3  (8 x 10-6 mg/m3) would result in not greater than a one-in-ten-thousand increased risk of developing cancer during one's lifetime.  For a detailed discussion of confidence in the potency estimates, please see IRIS. (7)
Chromium III
  • No data are available on the carcinogenic potential of chromium (III) compounds alone. (1,8)
  • EPA has classified chromium (III) as a Group D, not classifiable as to carcinogenicity in humans. (8)
  • EPA has stated that "the classification of chromium (VI) as a known human carcinogen raises a concern for the carcinogenic potential of chromium (III)". (8)

Physical Properties

  • The metal, chromium (Cr), is a steel-gray solid with a high melting point and an atomic weight of 51.996 g/mol.  Chromium has oxidation states ranging from chromium (-II) to chromium (+VI). (1)
  • Chromium forms a large number of compounds, in both the chromium (III) and the chromium (VI) forms.  Chromium compounds are stable in the trivalent state, with the hexavalent form being the second most stable state. (1)
  • The chromium (III) compounds are sparingly soluble in water and may be found in water bodies as soluble chromium (III) complexes, while the chromium (VI) compounds are readily soluble in water. (1)

Conversion Factors (only for the gaseous form):
To convert concentrations in air (at 25°C) from ppm to mg/m3: mg/m3 = (ppm) × (molecular weight of the compound)/(24.45).  For chromium: 1 ppm = 2.12 mg/m3.  To convert concentrations in air from µg/m3 to mg/m3: mg/m3 = (µg/m3) × (1 mg/1,000 µg).
Health Data from Inhalation Exposure

ACGIH TLV--American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit value expressed as a time-weighted average; the concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without adverse effects.
LC50 (Lethal Concentration50)--A calculated concentration of a chemical in air to which exposure for a specific length of time is expected to cause death in 50% of a defined experimental animal population.
NIOSH IDLH -- National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health's immediately dangerous to life or health concentration; NIOSH recommended exposure limit to ensure that a worker can escape from an exposure condition that is likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from the environment.
NIOSH REL--NIOSH's recommended exposure limit; NIOSH-recommended exposure limit for an 8- or 10-h time-weighted-average exposure and/or ceiling.
OSHA PEL--Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit expressed as a time-weighted average; the concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without adverse effect averaged over a normal 8-h workday or a 40-h workweek.
The health and regulatory values cited in this factsheet were obtained in December 1999.
aHealth numbers are toxicological numbers from animal testing or risk assessment values developed by EPA.
bRegulatory numbers are values that have been incorporated in Government regulations, while advisory numbers are nonregulatory values provided by the Government or other groups as advice.  OSHA numbers are regulatory, whereas NIOSH and ACGIH numbers are advisory.
cThe benchmark dose is from the critical study used as the basis for the EPA's RfC for Cr(VI) particulates.
dThe LOAEL is from the critical study used as the basis for the EPA's RfC for chromic acid mists and dissolved Cr (VI) aerosols.


  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Chromium. U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. 1998.
  2. SAIC. PM/Toxics Integration: Addressing Co-Control Benefits. Submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Plannng and Standards, Research Triangle Park, NC. 1998.
  3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Toxicological Review of Trivalent Chromium. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. 1998.
  4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. 1998.
  5. World Health Organization. Chromium. Environmental Health Criteria 61. Geneva, Switzerland. 1988.
  6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS, online database). National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. 1993.
  7. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Chromium VI. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. 1999.
  8. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Chromium III. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. 1999.
  9. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).  Occupational Safety and Health Standards, Toxic and Hazardous Substances. Code of Federal Regulations. 29 CFR 1910.1000.  1998.
  10. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). 1999 TLVs and BEIs.  Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents, Biological Exposure Indices.  Cincinnati, OH.  1999.
  11. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cincinnati, OH. 1997.
All information credit to the original writer's sources