Friday, March 16, 2018

Types of Bone Disorder


Osteoporosis is a condition in which there is a loss of mineral part of the bone and thinning and disintegration of the spongy part of the bone. All this leads to propensity of the bone to break. Fractures (breaks) of the hip or spine are main complications but other bones are affected, too. Osteoporosis treatment is aimed to prevent fractures. Osteoporosis is much more common in females than in males because bone minerals are lost very fast 3-8 years after menopause.
Treatment with bisphosphonate medications increases bone density and strength by slowing down bone resorption in osteoporosis. These medications need to be taken for several years (usually once a week) to combat the spread of osteoporosis. Taking enough calcium and vitamin D as well as regular exercise also helps prevent fractures. Severity of the osteoporosis is determined by bone densitometry (see below).


Basically the same condition as osteoporosis just of milder degree. Individuals who are currently losing bone (determined by blood tests or densitometry) or have risk factors for further bone thinning should be treated with same medications as people who already have osteoporosis, just with lower doses (goal is to prevent further bone loss).


A bone condition similar to osteoporosis caused by prolonged and severe vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D is very important for absorption of calcium from guts into the blood stream. Low blood level of vitamin D causes not enough calcium to be available for rebuilding the skeleton (rebuilding occurs throughout the life). This leads to poorly calcified bone, much like in osteoporosis. Symptoms of diffuse bone and muscle achingmay develop and in severe cases lead to fractures of the bone. However, most patients have a mild form and are basically without symptoms. Diagnosis is usually made during the investigation of low bone density obtained by DEXA (see below).

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

A condition different from osteoporosis in which part of the skeleton (sometime just one bone) suffers from greatly increased and irregular remodeling. Bone affected with the disease is thickened but weak. Irregular bone structure is easily visible on x-rays. Patients may have pain in the affected bone or pain from the compression if nearby nerves (at times pain may be severe). Deformations of weight bearing bones can be seen when affected with Paget’s. Cause of the disease is currently unknown but some viruses have been suspected.
Treatment consist of bisphosphonates (same medications used for osteoporosis and osteopenia but in higher doses) and pain management. Sometimes, corrective surgeries are necessary to improve function of the affected bone.


Osteomyelitis refers to a bacterial bone infection, which can either be acute or chronic. An estimated 50,000 cases of osteomyelitis occur annually in the US, according to Epocrates. Symptoms may include localized bone pain, tenderness, redness and swelling as well as possible fever and chills. Antibiotics are the primary treatment. In some cases, surgery is need to remove infected bone tissue.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Osteogenesis imperfecta is an inherited disease characterized by brittle bones that fracture easily. With each of the 8 types of osteogenesis imperfecta, a defective gene leads to impaired production of collagen, a structural protein necessary for normal bone formation. Osteogenesis imperfecta is typically diagnosed in childhood and affects an estimated 20,000 to 50,000 people in the US, according to the National Institutes of Health. The signs and symptoms of osteogenesis imperfecta vary and may include short stature, loose joints, muscle weakness, spinal curvature, brittle teeth, bone deformity, barrel-shaped chest, hearing loss and a blue or gray tint to the whites of the eyes.


With osteonecrosis, loss of blood supply causes death of bone tissue. The disease most commonly affects the head of the thighbone, or femoral head. The shoulder, knee, wrist or ankle bones can also be affected. An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 people in the US are diagnosed with osteonecrosis of the femoral head each year, as reported in a September 2015 article in the "World Journal of Orthpedics." Most cases of osteonecrosis occur due to bone trauma, such as a hip fracture or dislocation. People with this condition typically develop gradually progressive bone pain. Small areas of osteonecrosis may heal without treatment. For larger bone lesions, treatment may include medication, physical therapy and/or surgery. Total joint replacement is performed if the bone collapses.
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is a rare childhood bone disorder similar to osteonecrosis of the femoral head in adults. With this condition, however, the bone typically regenerates in 6 to 24 months.

Bone Tumors

Most tumors that arise in the bones are noncancerous. The number of people affected by these tumors is unknown as they often cause no symptoms and remain undetected. Cancerous bone tumors are relatively uncommon with an estimated 3,260 new cases per year, according to a 2017 American Cancer Society report. The most common bone cancer is osteosarcoma, which primarily affects children, adolescents and young adults. Metastatic bone cancer, with which cancer from another area of the body spreads to one or more bones, occurs far more frequently. Several of the most common types of cancer often spread to the bones, including lung, breast, prostate and colon cancer. Bone pain and tenderness are common symptoms. Fractures may occur when normal bone is replaced by cancer cells. Treatment for bone tumors depends on the type, size, location and other factors.

Rickets and Osteomalacia bone tumors,

Osteomalacia and rickets are characterized by defective mineralization of the bones, which cause them to be soft and fragile. Rickets affects children and osteomalacia affects adults. These diseases can be caused by a nutritional vitamin D deficiency, or impaired intestinal absorption or metabolism of the vitamin. Children with rickets typically experience stunted growth and bowing of the leg bones. Symptoms common with both rickets and osteomalacia include widespread bone pain and tenderness, and muscle weaknsourcesess. Treatment typically includes vitamin D supplementation and possibly other therapies, depending on the underlying cause.
Note: All information are credited tot the original writer's source and references.

Thursday, March 15, 2018

Between Life, Death and Faith

naomispenny, on May 2017,
I asked one of my sons to take a picture of me while I was writing and their father was taking a bath.
Our 26th Wedding Anniversary
50th Birthday of my Husband
While the whole Family's weekend escapade in a Hotel,I wrote a letter for my husband's birthday and our wedding anniversary I got it all wrong including his 50th birthday and me stuck with 25th Wedding Anniversary.. ..I am beginning to get afraid I am forgetting important details in my life.

Our purpose in Life begins with our Birth, reason why we live and

Ends it on our Death, our mission has been accomplished.

Nothing in this world is pure coincidence even with our own free will.

Each and everyone is either in perpendicular line or parallel.We meet in our crossed roads.

But remember,Faith can move mountain.

Muscle and Bone Diseases

The musculoskeletal system consists of the body's bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, and cartilage.

Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most common medical problems in the United States. It can range from a dull, constant ache to a sudden, sharp pain that makes it hard to move.


Bursitis is a common condition that causes swelling and pain around muscles and bones.


Fibromyalgia is a long-lasting or chronic disorder that causes muscle pain and fatigue (feeling tired).

Fibrous Dysplasia

Fibrous dysplasia happens when healthy bone is replaced with other types of tissue. Bones may become weak or oddly shaped, or they may even break.

Growth Plate Injuries

Injuries to the growth plate happen when a break or fracture develops near or at the end of a long bone.

Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

The more than 200 heritable disorders of connective are related to problems in genes that are responsible for building connective tissues.

Hip Replacement Surgery

Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or diseased parts of a hip joint and replaces them with new, man-made parts.

Joint Replacement Surgery

Joint replacement surgery removes damaged or diseased parts of a joint and replaces them with new, man-made parts. 

Knee Problems

Knee problems happen when you injure or develop disease in your knee and it can’t do its job.

Marfan Syndrome

Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissue supports many parts of your body.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a disease that affects your bones. OI is also called brittle bone disease because it causes bones to be weak and break easily.


Osteonecrosis is a bone disease that results from the loss of blood supply to the bone. Without blood, the bone tissue dies, causing the bone to collapse.


Osteoporosis is a disease in which your bones become weak and are more likely to break.

Paget’s Disease of Bone

Paget’s disease is a disorder that causes bones to grow too large and weaken. You can have Paget’s disease in any bones in your body.

Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents

Scoliosis is a disorder in which there is a sideways curve of the spine. Curves are often S-shaped or C-shaped. In most people, there is no known cause for this curve.

Shoulder Problems

Most shoulder problems happen when soft tissues in the shoulder region break down.

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is narrowing of the spine. This narrowing puts pressure on the spinal cord and nerves and can cause pain.

Sports Injuries

Sports injuries are injuries that happen when playing sports or exercising. There are two kinds of sports injuries: acute and chronic.

Sports Injuries in Youth: A Guide for Parents

Parents learn about common sports injuries among youth and the ways to prevent such injuries from happening.

Sprains and Strains

A sprain is an injury to a ligament (tissue that connects two or more bones at a joint). A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon (fibrous cords of tissue that connect muscle to bone).


Tendinitis is swelling and pain in a joint. It is a common condition, usually caused by repeated injuries to a tendon, the part of the joint that connects muscles to bones.

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

Bone Diseases Causes, Symptoms,Diagnosis,Risk Factor and Treatment

Bone disease is considered any affliction that involves the skeletal systemBone diseases can be very serious, and require prompt and effective treatment. Bone diseases can be very painful and can rob the patient of mobility and independence.


Symptoms of bone disease vary by each disease, but can include symptoms such as frequent breaking, deformity, pain, limited range of motion, difficulty walking or walking distinctively different, dental problems, hearing loss, blue hue to the white area of the eyes, and headaches.


Bone diseases
Image:Bone diseases
Some bone diseases are elusive to their causes. While causative factors vary by disease, many bone diseases are caused by genetic factors, viral infection, chemical abnormalities, and a lack of bone collagen, injuries, fractures, damage to blood vessels, excessive use of alcohol, or the long term use of certain medications


Risk factors for bone diseases can include chronic medication, blood disorders, disease, steroid use, radiation treatments or chemotherapy, pancreatitis, and heredity factors. Many patients who are diagnosed with bone diseases have no risk factors.


Young children are often not diagnosed with bone diseases until after the parents have been cleared of suspected child abuse. Children with multiple broken bones or more than two broken bones in a year are often immediately suspected victims of abuse. Often children with bone diseases are removed from the care of their parents before diagnosis is even considered. Diagnosing bone diseases require numerous tests such as bone scans, x-rays, blood tests, bone biopsies, CT scans, skin biopsies, earnose, and throat examinations, and magnetic resonance imaging. Some bone diseases, if severe, cause obvious physical deformities. These are typically diagnosed via physical examination and confirmed with simple testing like x-rays or bone scans or blood tests. 

Bone diseases come with their own special set of complications. Living a life while breaking bones simply by doing everyday activities makes the world a dangerous place. 

Children with bone diseases often develop adjustment and psychological issues relating to their bone disease and their inability to play as well as fears of the world. Other complication can include life threatening breaks, such as puncturing lungs with ribsheart conditions, scoliosis, and hearing loss or brain injury.


Treatment options may vary, and often depend on the patient’s age, overall health, extent of the disease, the patient’s ability to tolerate treatments, the expected progression of the disease, and the patient’s preference. Treatments may include surgical procedures to protect the bones from damage, deformity, or alignment issues, medications, physical therapy, joint replacement, wheelchair confinement, mobility assistance devices, splinting, bracing, rodding (the placement of rods alongside or even in the bone to allow for straight growth), core decompression (a procedure where the inner layer of the bone is removed), bone grafts (transplantation of healthy bone to assist the growth of unhealthy bone), chemotherapy, radiation, amputation when no other alternative is available, and fracture care. 

Self care options include being careful to protect the bones and the bone structure, close monitoring of the heart, lungs, ears, and ability to hear, and exercising as possible and reasonable. Supportive care and emotional support are imperative, especially for children. Dietary health can seriously impact the general health or lack of health in a patient. Poor diet can contribute to symptoms and even contribute to the progression of the disease. Responding appropriately to pain can mean the difference between minor damage and severe damage. Pain is the body’s natural indicator that something is wrong. 

Patients with even mild bone diseases need to respond to their painful symptoms. Self education is important, allowing the patient to fully understand their best treatment options and allowing them to be completely active in the decision making process. 

Coping with bones disease is very difficult. Pain management alone can make a patient feel drowsy or unmotivated. Family support is imperative as is psychological support. Bone diseases can restrict movement and independence, and many bone disease patients actually qualify for assistance dogs. Assistance dogs and other methods of promoting independence can improve self esteem, as well as open options that bone disease patients may not have ever had previously. Working closely with doctors, mental health professionals, and family members to find activities and independence promoting devices and ideas that can keep a family member with a bone disease as active and participatory as possible.


Note: All information and images are credited to the original writer's source and references.

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

What is Bone?

To understand osteoporosis, it is important to learn about bone. Made mostly of collagen, bone is living, growing tissue. Collagen is a protein that provides a soft framework, and calcium phosphate is a mineral that adds strength and hardens the framework. This combination of collagen and calcium makes bone strong and flexible enough to withstand stress. More than 99 percent of the body's calcium is contained in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1 percent is found in the blood.

Two types of bone found in the body—cortical and trabecular. Cortical bone is dense and compact. It forms the outer layer of the bone. Trabecular bone makes up the inner layer of the bone and has a spongy, honeycomb-like structure.

Bone Remodeling

Throughout life, bone is constantly renewed through a two-part process called remodeling. This process consists of resorption and formation. During resorption, special cells called osteoclasts break down and remove old bone tissue. During bone formation, new bone tissue is laid down to replace the old. Several hormones including calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, estrogen (in women), and testosterone (in men), among others, regulate osteoclast and osteoblast function.

The Bone Bank Account

Think of bone as a bank account where you “deposit” and “withdraw” bone tissue. During childhood and the teenage years, new bone is added to the skeleton faster than old bone is removed. As a result, bones become larger, heavier, and denser. For most people, bone formation continues at a faster pace than removal until bone mass peaks during the third decade of life.
After age 20, bone “withdrawals” can begin to exceed “deposits.” For many people, this bone loss can be prevented by continuing to get calcium, vitamin D, and exercise and by avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol use. Osteoporosis develops when bone removal occurs too quickly, replacement occurs too slowly, or both. You are more likely to develop osteoporosis if you did not reach your maximum peak bone mass during your bone-building years.

Women, Men, and Osteoporosis

Women are more likely than men to develop osteoporosis. This is because women generally have smaller, thinner bones than men have and because women can lose bone tissue rapidly in the first 4 to 8 years after menopause because of the sharp decline in production of the hormone estrogen. Produced by the ovaries, estrogen has been shown to have a protective effect on bone. Women usually go through menopause between age 45 and 55. After menopause, bone loss in women greatly exceeds that in men. However, by age 65, women and men tend to lose bone tissue at the same rate. Although men do not undergo the equivalent of menopause, production of the male hormone testosterone may decrease, and this can lead to increased bone loss and a greater risk of developing osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis Prevention

Osteoporosis is preventable for many people. Prevention is important because although there are treatments for osteoporosis, a cure has not yet been found. A comprehensive program that can help prevent osteoporosis includes:
  • a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D
  • weight-bearing exercise
  • a healthy lifestyle with no smoking or excessive alcohol intake
  • bone density testing
  • medication, when appropriate
Note: All information are credited to the original writer's source and references.

Monday, March 12, 2018

Paul Mccartney & Michael Jackson - Say Say Say and Michael Jackson and Paul Mccartney

Bone Biology: All about Bones

Bones in our body are living tissue. They have their own blood vessels and are made of living cells, which help them to grow and to repair themselves. As well, proteins, minerals and vitamins make up the bone.
We are born with about 300 soft bones. During childhood and adolescence, the cartilage grows and is slowly replaced by hard bone. Some of these bones later fuse together, so that the adult skeleton has 206 bones.

The major functions of bones are to:

  • Provide structural support for the body
  • Provide protection of vital organs
  • Provide an environment for marrow (where blood cells are produced)
  • Act as a storage area for minerals (such as calcium)

Bones are composed of two types of tissue:

1. A hard outer layer called cortical (compact) bone, which is strong, dense and tough.
2. A spongy inner layer called trabecular (cancellous) bone. This network of trabeculae is lighter and less dense than compact bone.

Bone is also composed of:

  • Bone forming cells (osteoblasts and osteocytes)
  • Bone resorbing cells (osteoclasts)
  • Nonmineral matrix of collagen and noncollagenous proteins (osteoid)
  • Inorganic mineral salts deposited within the matrix

 *figures adapted from

Bone Cells
Cells in our bones are responsible for bone production, maintenance and modeling:
  • Osteoblasts: These cells are derived from mesenchymal stem cells and are responsible for bone matrix synthesis and its subsequent mineralization. In the adult skeleton, the majority of bone surfaces that are not undergoing formation or resorption (i.e. not being remodeled) are lined by bone lining cells.
  • Osteocytes: These cells are osteoblasts that become incorporated within the newly formed osteoid, which eventually becomes calcified bone. Osteocytes situated deep in bone matrix maintain contact with newly incorporated osteocytes in osteoid, and with osteoblasts and bone lining cells on the bone surfaces, through an extensive network of cell processes (canaliculi). They are thought to be ideally situated to respond to changes in physical forces upon bone and to transduce messages to cells on the bone surface, directing them to initiate resorption or formation responses.
  • Osteoclasts: These cells are large multinucleated cells, like macrophages, derived from the hematopoietic lineage. Osteoclasts function in the resorption of mineralized tissue and are found attached to the bone surface at sites of active bone resorption. Their characteristic feature is a ruffled edge where active resorption takes place with the secretion of bone-resorbing enzymes, which digest bone matrix.

Bone matrix

Osteoid is comprised of type I collagen (~94%) and noncollagenous proteins. The hardness and rigidity of bone is due to the presence of mineral salt in the osteoid matrix, which is a crystalline complex of calcium and phosphate (hydroxyapatite). Calcified bone contains about 25% organic matrix (2-5% of which are cells), 5% water and 70% inorganic mineral (hydroxyapatite).

Types of bone

Two types of bone can be identified according to the pattern of collagen forming the osteoid:
  • Woven bone is characterized by a haphazard organization of collagen fibers and is mechanically weak.
  • Lamellar bone is characterized by a regular parallel alignment of collagen into sheets (lamellae) and is mechanically strong.
Woven bone is produced when osteoblasts produce osteoid rapidly. This occurs initially in all fetal bones, but the resulting woven bone is replaced by remodeling and the deposition of more resilient lamellar bone. In adults, woven bone is formed when there is very rapid new bone formation, as occurs in the repair of a fracture. Following a fracture, woven bone is remodeled and lamellar bone is deposited. Virtually all bone in the healthy mature adult is lamellar bone.

Bone development and growth

Osteogenesis (bone tissue formation) occurs by two processes:
  • Intramembranous ossification involves the replacement of connective tissue membrane sheets with bone tissue and results in the formation of flat bones (e.g. skull, clavicle, mandible).
  • Endochondral ossification involves the replacement of a hyaline cartilage model with bone tissue (e.g. femur, tibia, humerus, radius).
Long bones continue to grow in length and width throughout childhood and adolescence. Increase in length is due to continued endochondral bone formation at each end of the long bones. Increase in circumference of the bone shaft is achieved by formation of new bone on the outer surface of the cortical bone.

Bone modelling

Modeling is when bone resorption and bone formation occur on separate surfaces (i.e. formation and resorption are not coupled). An example of this process is during long bone increases in length and diameter. Bone modeling occurs during birth to adulthood and is responsible for gain in skeletal mass and changes in skeletal form.

Bone remodelling

Remodeling is the replacement of old tissue by new bone tissue. This mainly occurs in the adult skeleton to maintain bone mass. This process involves the coupling of bone formation and bone resorption and consists of five phases:
1. Activation: preosteoclasts are stimulated and differentiate under the influence of cytokines and growth factors into mature active osteoclasts
2. Resorption: osteoclasts digest mineral matrix (old bone)
3. Reversal: end of resorption
4. Formation: osteoblasts synthesize new bone matrix
5. Quiescence: osteoblasts become resting bone lining cells on the newly formed bone surface


Note:All Information and images are credited to original writer's source and references.

Saturday, March 10, 2018

Phosphorous,Safe level, Food source and additives

Phosphorus is a mineral found in your bones. Along with calcium, phosphorus is needed to build strong healthy bones, as well as, keeping other parts of your body healthy.
Why is phosphorus important to you?
Normal working kidneys can remove extra phosphorus in your blood. When you have chronic kidney disease (CKD), your kidneys cannot remove phosphorus very well. High phosphorus levels can cause damage to your body. Extra phosphorus causes body changes that pull calcium out of your bones, making them weak. High phosphorus and calcium levels also lead to dangerous calcium deposits in blood vessels, lungs, eyes, and heart. Phosphorus and calcium control are very important for your overall health.

What is a safe blood level of phosphorus?

A normal phosphorus level is 2.5 to 4.5 mg/dL. Ask your doctor or dietitian what your last phosphorus level was and write it down to help keep track of it.

Will dialysis help with phosphorus control?

Yes. Dialysis can remove some phosphorus from your blood. It is important for you to understand how to limit build-up of phosphorus between your dialysis treatments.

How can I control my phosphorus level?                           

You can keep you phosphorus level normal by understanding your diet and medications for phosphorus control. Phosphorus can be found naturally in foods (organic phosphorus) and is naturally found in protein-rich foods such as meats, poultry, fish, nuts, beans and dairy products.  Phosphorus found in animal foods is absorbed more easily than phosphorus found in plant foods. 
Phosphorus that has been added to food in the form of an additive or preservative (inorganic phosphorus) is found in foods such as fast foods, ready to eat foods, canned and bottle beverages, enhanced meats, and most processed foods. Phosphorus from food additives is completely absorbed.  Avoiding phosphorus additives can lower your intake of phosphorus. Phosphorus additives are found on the list of ingredients on the nutrition facts label. Look for “PHOS” to find phosphorus additives in the food.
Phosphorus additives found in foods include:     
  • Dicalcium phosphate
  • Disodium phosphate                     
  • Monosodium phosphate
  • Phosphoric acid      
  • Sodium hexameta-phosphate     
  • Trisodium phosphate
  • Sodium tripolyphosphate
  • Tetrasodium pyrophosphate      
Your dietitian and doctor will help you with this. Below is a list of foods high in phosphorous:
                              HIGH PHOSPHORUS FOOD TO LIMIT OR AVOID
chocolate drinks

dark colas

drinks made with milk
canned iced teas
pepper type soda (Dr Pepper)

bottled beverages with phosphate additives

Dairy Products


liquid nondairy creamer

ice cream


cream soups
yogurt (Greek type acceptable)




beef liver
chicken liver

fish roe
organ meats

Other foods

chocolate candy
oat bran muffin

most processed/prepared foods
brewer’s yeast

What medications are for phosphorus control?

Your doctor may order a medicine called a phosphate binder for you to take with meals and snacks. This medicine will help control the amount of phosphorus your body absorbs from the foods you eat.
There are many different kinds of phosphate binders. Pills, chewable tablets, powders, and liquids are available. Some types also contain calcium, while others do not. You should only take the phosphate binder that is ordered by your doctor or dietitian.

All information are credited to the original writer's sources and references, If symptoms persist, consult your doctor.

More Information about Phosphorous: