Wednesday, July 26, 2017

Rubella or German measles symptoms, treatment and prevention

the rubella rash on a childs back
Public Health Image Library(opens in a new window) (PHIL),
Department of Health and Human Services, Centers
 for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-USA)

Rubella (German measles) is an infection caused by the rubella virus.

How rubella is spread

Rubella is spread:
  • When an infected person talks, coughs or sneezes small droplets containing infectious agents into the air. The droplets in the air may be breathed in by those nearby.
  • By indirect contact with hands, tissues or other articles soiled by nose and throat discharges.

Signs and symptoms

Rubella infection in a woman in the first 8 to 10 weeks of pregnancy results in death of or damage to the fetus in up to 90% of cases. Multiple defects are common (for example, deafness, blindness, brain and heart damage, and mental handicap) and late complications are being increasingly recognised. The risk lowers to about 10 to 20% if the mother gets rubella at 16 weeks gestation and defects are rare after 20 weeks.
In other people, rubella is a mild disease. Symptoms, when present, may include:
  • fever
  • headache
  • runny nose
  • conjunctivitis (inflammation of the lining of the eyelids and eye)
  • rash (see image)
  • swollen glands (especially at the back of the neck)
  • joint pain.
Symptoms, particularly joint pains, are more severe in adults.
Image courtesy Public Health Image Library (PHIL), Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-USA)


Rubella is diagnosed by a blood test. Clinical diagnosis based on the appearance of the rash is unreliable.

Incubation period

(time between becoming infected and developing symptoms)
16 to 18 days with a range of 14 to 23 days.

Infectious period

(time during which an infected person can infect others)
Up to 7 days before and at least 4 days after appearance of the rash.


There is no effective antiviral treatment for rubella. Treatment of symptoms includes plenty of fluids and pain relief if required. Paracetamol may be used to reduce fever and pain. Aspirin should not be given to children under 12 years of age unless specifically recommended by a doctor.


Pregnant women

In addition to the above prevention points, all pregnant women:
  • Should be tested for immunity to rubella prior to, or during early pregnancy. If found not to be immune, MMR vaccination is given after delivery of the baby but before discharge from the maternity unit. Rubella vaccine should not be given to a woman known to be pregnant and pregnancy should be avoided for one month after vaccination.
  • With suspected rubella or exposure to rubella should seek specialist obstetric advice, regardless of a history of rubella or rubella vaccination. Rubella re-infection, often without symptoms, can occur in individuals who have had previous infection or vaccination, although fetal damage is very rare in these cases.

Useful links

1 – In South Australia the law requires doctors and laboratories to report some infections or diseases to SA Health. These infections or diseases are commonly referred to as 'notifiable conditions'.
Image - Rubella. Image courtesy of Public Health Image Library(opens in a new window) (PHIL), Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-USA)

Related article


Rubella cannot be treated with antibiotics because they do not work against viral infections. Unless there are complications, rubella will get better on its own.
Any pregnant woman who has been exposed to rubella should contact her obstetrician immediately.
Rubella usually is mild in kids, who often can be cared for at home. Monitor your child's temperature and call the doctor if the feverclimbs too high.
To ease minor discomfort, you can give your child acetaminophenor ibuprofenRemember, you should never give aspirin to a child who has a viral illness, as its use in such cases has been associated with the development of Reye syndrome.

Tuesday, July 25, 2017

Mumps on Symptoms, causes, prevention and treatment


Mumps is an extremely contagious viral infection of the salivary glands that most commonly affects children. The most obvious symptom is swelling of the salivary glands, giving the patient a "hamster-like" face.
The affected salivary glands are called the parotid glands; sometimes, the mumps virus can also cause inflammation of the testis, ovary, pancreas, or meninges (membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord).
Once someone has had mumps, they usually become immune to future infections.
To reduce the spread of mumps, the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine is often given at an early age to build immunity to the virus. Since the MMR vaccination was brought in, there has been a 99 percent decrease in mumps cases in the United States.
Fast facts on mumps
Here are some key points about mumps. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.
  • Mumps is extremely contagious.
  • Around 20 percent of people with the mumps virus show no symptoms.
  • The MMR vaccine is incredibly safe.
  • There is no antiviral treatment for mumps; only the symptoms can be treated.

Symptoms of mumps

The symptoms of mumps normally appear 2-3 weeks after the patient has been infected. However, almost 20 percent of people with the virus do not suffer any symptoms at all.

Initially, flu-like symptoms will appear, such as:
Over the next few days, the classic symptoms of mumps will develop. The main symptom is painful and swollen parotid glands, one of three sets of salivary glands; this causes the person's cheeks to puff out. The swelling normally does not occur in one go - it happens in waves.
Other associated symptoms can include:
  • Pain in the sides of the face where it is swollen.
  • Pain experienced when swallowing.
  • Trouble swallowing.
  • Fever (up to 103 degrees Fahrenheit).
  • dry mouth.
  • Pain in joints.
Rarely, adults can contract mumps. In these cases, the symptoms are generally the same, but sometimes slightly worse and complications are slightly more likely.
Causes of mumps
Mumps is due to an infection by the mumps virus. It can be transmitted by respiratory secretions (e.g. saliva) from a person already affected with the condition. When contracting mumps, the virus travels from the respiratory tract to the salivary glands and reproduces, causing the glands to swell.
Examples of how mumps can be spread include:
Sneezing or coughing.
Using the same cutlery and plates as an infected person.
Sharing food and drink with someone who is infected.
An infected person touching their nose or mouth and then passing it onto a surface that someone else may touch.

Individuals infected with the mumps virus are contagious for approximately 15 days (6 days before the symptoms start to show, and up to 9 days after they start). The mumps virus is part of the paramyxovirus family, a common cause of infection, especially in children.

Treatment for mumps.

Because mumps is viral, antibiotics cannot be used to treat it, and at present, there are no anti-viral medications that can treat mumps.
Current treatment can only help relieve the symptoms until the infection has run its course and the body has built up an immunity, much like a cold. In most cases, people recover from mumps within 2 weeks.
Some steps can be taken to help relieve the symptoms of mumps:
  • Consume plenty of fluids, ideally water - avoid fruit juices as they stimulate the production of saliva, which can be painful.
  • Place something cold on the swollen area to alleviate the pain.
  • Eat mushy or liquid food as chewing might be painful.
  • Get sufficient rest and sleep.
  • Gargle warm salt water.
  • Take painkillers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
FYI Drinking plenty of fluids may help to relieve the symptoms of mumps.

Complications of mumps
Complications are more frequent in adults than children, the most common are:
  • Orchitis - testicles swell and become painful, this happens to 1 in 5 adult males with mumps. The swelling normally goes down within 1 week; tenderness can last longer than that. This rarely results in infertility.
  • Oophoritis - ovaries swell and are painful; it occurs in 1 in 20 adult females. The swelling will subside as the immune system fights off the virus. This rarely results in infertility.
  • Viral meningitis - this is one of the rarest of the common complications. It happens when the virus spreads through the bloodstream and infects the body's central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
  • Inflamed pancreas (pancreatitis) - pain will be experienced in the upper abdomen; this occurs in 1 out of 20 cases and is usually mild.
If a pregnant woman contracts mumps in the first 12-16 weeks of her pregnancy, she will have a slightly increased risk of miscarriage.
Rarer complications of mumps include:
  • Encephalitis - the brain swells causing neurological issues. In some cases, this can be fatal. This is a very rare risk factor and affects just 1 in 6,000 cases.
  • Hearing loss - this is the rarest of all the complications affecting just 1 in 15,000.
As rare as some of these complications are, it is important to seek medical advice or help if an individual suspects they or their child, may be developing them.

Tests and diagnosis of mumps

Normally, mumps can be diagnosed by its symptoms alone, especially by examining the facial swelling. A doctor might also:
  • Check inside the mouth to see the position of the tonsils - when infected with mumps, a person's tonsils can get pushed to the side.
  • Take the patient's temperature.
  • Take a sample of blood, urine, or saliva to confirm diagnosis.
  • Take a sample of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) from the spine for testing - this is usually only in severe cases.

Prevention of mumps.

The mumps vaccine is the best method for preventing mumps; it can come on its own or as part of the MMR vaccine. The MMR vaccine also defends the body against rubella and measles.
The MMR vaccine is given to an infant when they are just over 1 year old and again, as a booster, just before they start school.
Anyone born after the 1990s would most probably have been given the MMR vaccine but, if unsure, it is always good to check with a doctor.
The mumps vaccine is routinely given to children in 82 countries. In many of these countries, encephalitis and deafness related to mumps have nearly disappeared.
An adult can be given the MMR at any age; a doctor may advise someone to take the vaccine before traveling abroad to certain regions, including:
  • India
  • Some parts of Africa
  • Southeast Asia
  • Japan
  • Pakistan
Other reasons someone may be advised to have the MMR vaccine in adulthood is if they are:
  • Working in healthcare e.g. hospital or medical facility.
  • Working or attending somewhere with lots of young people, such as a college.
  • Working in a school or around lots of children.
If suffering from cancer or a disease that lowers the immune system, a doctor would need to be consulted before the MMR vaccine is considered.
However, individuals are not advised to have the MMR vaccine if:
  • The patient's immune system is seriously compromised.
  • The patient has had an allergic reaction to neomycin (a type of antibiotic) or gelatin.
  • The patient is pregnant or soon to be pregnant (in the next 4 weeks).

MMR vaccine side effects

Most people given the MMR vaccine do not suffer side effects, and the disease itself cannot be contracted from the vaccine. A small percentage might develop a rash or fever and possibly aches in their joints.
Less than one in a million will suffer a severe allergic reaction from the MMR vaccine.

Preventing the spread of mumps

There are a number of precautions that help prevent the spread of infection; these are:

  • Washing hands with water and soap frequently.
  • Not going into work/school until 5 days after the symptoms start.
  • Covering the nose and mouth with a tissue when sneezing or coughing.
Reviewed by University of Illinois-Chicago, School of Medicine


Monday, July 24, 2017

THE BELLS OF BALANGIGA: and SAN PEDRO of the Philippines :Where are they now

Two Balangiga bells exhibited at Fort D.A. Russel, now F. E. Warren Air Force Base

The third Balangiga bell in the Madison Barracks at Sackets HarborNew York, station of the 9th US Infantry Regiment at the turn of the 20th century. This bell is now at Camp Red Cloud, their present station in Korea
photos source:

Note: You can read the full story of the famous bells in the links provided by the sources.


In English:


In Filipino/Tagalog


The Bells of Balangiga’


It’s not THE famous bells, but it’s a Filipino one: 

The San Pedro bell

From left, Don Stanley Dalisay, Bambi Lorica, Sonny Busa and Consul General Mario De Leon watch workers
unbolt the San Pedro Bell from its base outside the Most Holy Trinity Catholic Chapel. JON MELEGRITO

San Pedro Bell returns to Philippines in 115 years after
 101 years at West Point.

You can read the full story of the famous bells in the links provided by the sources.

5 Ways to reuse your food scraps...while saving our planet Watch

credit/source: and Blossom

Saturday, July 22, 2017

Ways to Upgrade your bathroom for Less Watch

credit/source: and Blossom

 Materials: Steel plate Photo frame Wrapping paper Tape Glue gun PVC pipe Oven mitt Fabrics Yarn Make-up remover tissue Magnets Scissors Spoon Instructions: No space for cosmetic supplies?
 Step 1: Lay the wrapping paper under the steel plate on a flat surface.
 Step 2: Wrap the steel plate. Make sure to secure with tape.
 Step 3: Get a photo frame and take the glass out.
 Step 4: Put the wrapped plate in the frame. Step 5: Get plastic organizers and glue the magnets.
 Step 6: Put the organizers on the plate.

Hair drier and straightener case.
Step 1: Get a PVC pipe and paint your pipe if you desire!

DIY Toilet paper holder
 Step 1: Get two fabric, and glue them together.
 Step 2: Pull yarn through.
 Step 3: Secure it to the toilet paper holder.

 Easy way to clean sink?
 Step 1: Recycle your make-up remover tissue to clean the sink.

DIY Plunger Case
 Step 1: Recycle vinegar bottle! Draw the line as shown below and cut the bottle.
 Step 2: Cut the top of the bottle as shown below to hold the plunger.

 Trash can hack!
 Step 1: Put multiple plastic bags into the trash can.

 Do not touch toilet seat
 Step 1: Glue the spoon to the toilet seat.

Sunday, July 16, 2017

Proper ways to fold and organize Underwear, Socks and Brassier

credit/source: and Gshow - O Entretenimento da Globo
 Note:This video finally targets the correct and proper way to fold and organize wardrobe and drawers.

Friday, July 14, 2017

Reorganize your wardrobe 2 watch

credit/source: and 5-Minute Crafts

1. Brassiere organizer to maintain its form by inserting a screw fit enough to hook the next wooden hanger.

2. There is other way to fold a shirt by folding on the sizing up of a money bill currency that you have then fold.

3. There is another way of folding by inserting a small sized clipboard or cardboard  to a shirt as guide. Remove the guide to folding when you are done. It is also better to teach your children this method while they are still young or even on older child.

4. On a Cardboard drawer divider cut it into four equal sizes by using scissors. After you cut it pile them together write a line about an inch or an inch and a half then slice by following the line that you wrote. Insert one cut out cardboard that you sliced. And if you wish just insert to each square empty toilet papers cardboard stick them together then you may place your underwear or boxer's shorts to each cylinder or you can make a cylinder out of a cardboard whichever is available.

5. In each shower ring place your scarves and hang or hook the rings together in a hanger to make a Shower Ring Scarf hanger.

6. Standing up a Straight boots just insert an old magazine to each pair.

7. As usual there is the pull up tab for can opener remove it to the empty can wash it fo course first before inserting to a hook hanger to add as additional space for another clothing to save much space in your wardrobe.

8. Wrap a rubber to each side of the hanger so your top clothing will not glide.

9. There are times you have to keep and store a coat to a empty box, container and sometimes you have to bring it after you  have to remove the coat after the event. This is one way to fold a Coat or jacket for suit. Reverse or put inside out one side of the arm of a coat until the shoulder pad but the other side of the arm will remain as it is then fold it.

Wednesday, July 12, 2017

STD Gonorrhea :The Clap or the Drip o Tulo

What is gonorrhea?

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can infect both men and women. It can cause infections in the genitals, rectum, and throat. It is a very common infection, especially among young people ages 15-24 years.

How is gonorrhea spread?

You can get gonorrhea by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has gonorrhea. A pregnant woman with gonorrhea can give the infection to her baby during childbirth.

How can I reduce my risk of getting gonorrhea?

The only way to avoid STDs is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
If you are sexually active, you can do the following things to lower your chances of getting gonorrhea:
  • Being in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and has negative STD test results;
  • Using latex condoms the right way every time you have sex.

Am I at risk for gonorrhea?

Any sexually active person can get gonorrhea through unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
If you are sexually active, have an honest and open talk with your health care provider and ask whether you should be tested for gonorrhea or other STDs. If you are a sexually active man who is gay, bisexual, or who has sex with men, you should be tested for gonorrhea every year. If you are a sexually active woman younger than 25 years or an older woman with risk factors such as new or multiple sex partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted infection, you should be tested for gonorrhea every year.

I’m pregnant. How does gonorrhea affect my baby?

If you are pregnant and have gonorrhea, you can give the infection to your baby during delivery. This can cause serious health problems for your baby. If you are pregnant, it is important that you talk to your health care provider so that you get the correct examination, testing, and treatment, as necessary. Treating gonorrhea as soon as possible will make health complications for your baby less likely.

How do I know if I have gonorrhea?

Some men with gonorrhea may have no symptoms at all. However, men who do have symptoms, may have:
  • A burning sensation when urinating;
  • A white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis;
  • Painful or swollen testicles (although this is less common).
Most women with gonorrhea do not have any symptoms. Even when a woman has symptoms, they are often mild and can be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection. Women with gonorrhea are at risk of developing serious complications from the infection, even if they don’t have any symptoms.
Symptoms in women can include:
  • Painful or burning sensation when urinating;
  • Increased vaginal discharge;
  • Vaginal bleeding between periods.
Rectal infections may either cause no symptoms or cause symptoms in both men and women that may include:
  • Discharge;
  • Anal itching;
  • Soreness;
  • Bleeding;
  • Painful bowel movements.
You should be examined by your doctor if you notice any of these symptoms or if your partner has an STD or symptoms of an STD, such as an unusual sore, a smelly discharge, burning when urinating, or bleeding between periods.

How will my doctor know if I have gonorrhea?

Most of the time, urine can be used to test for gonorrhea. However, if you have had oral and/or anal sex, swabs may be used to collect samples from your throat and/or rectum. In some cases, a swab may be used to collect a sample from a man’s urethra (urine canal) or a woman’s cervix (opening to the womb).

Can gonorrhea be cured?

Yes, gonorrhea can be cured with the right treatment. It is important that you take all of the medication your doctor prescribes to cure your infection. Medication for gonorrhea should not be shared with anyone. Although medication will stop the infection, it will not undo any permanent damage caused by the disease.
It is becoming harder to treat some gonorrhea, as drug-resistant strains of gonorrhea are increasing. If your symptoms continue for more than a few days after receiving treatment, you should return to a health care provider to be checked again.

I was treated for gonorrhea. When can I have sex again?

You should wait seven days after finishing all medications before having sex. To avoid getting infected with gonorrhea again or spreading gonorrhea to your partner(s), you and your sex partner(s) should avoid having sex until you have each completed treatment. If you’ve had gonorrhea and took medicine in the past, you can still get infected again if you have unprotected sex with a person who has gonorrhea.

What happens if I don’t get treated?

Untreated gonorrhea can cause serious and permanent health problems in both women and men.
In women, untreated gonorrhea can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Some of the complications of PID are
In men, gonorrhea can cause a painful condition in the tubes attached to the testicles. In rare cases, this may cause a man to be sterile, or prevent him from being able to father a child.
Rarely, untreated gonorrhea can also spread to your blood or joints. This condition can be life-threatening.
Untreated gonorrhea may also increase your chances of getting or giving HIV – the virus that causes AIDS.

Related Article:

One of the most common STDs

Gonorrhea is a very common sexually transmitted infection, especially for teens and people in their 20s. Gonorrhea is sometimes called “the clap” or “the drip.”
Gonorrhea is spread through vaginal, anal, and oral sex. The infection is carried in semen (cum)pre-cum, and vaginal fluids. Gonorrhea can infect your penisvaginacervixanusurethra, throat, and eyes (but that’s rare). Most people with gonorrhea don’t have any symptoms and feel totally fine, so they might not even know they’re infected.
Gonorrhea is usually easily cured with antibiotics. But if you don’t treat gonorrhea early enough, it can lead to more serious health problems in the future. That’s why STD testing is so important — the sooner you know you have gonorrhea, the faster you can get rid of it.  
You can help prevent gonorrhea by using condoms every time you have sex.


Fast gonorrhea facts

  • Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection that is transmitted during sexual activity.
  • Gonorrhea is not transmitted from toilet seats.
  • Women infected with gonorrhea may not have any symptoms.
  • Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotics.
  • Gonorrhea may cause PID, tubo-ovarian abscess, and sterility.

Fast facts on gonorrheaGonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.Gonorrhea can be passed from mother to baby during delivery.Gonorrhea and chlamydia can be experienced simultaneously.If untreated, gonorrhea can increase a person's risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV.Symptoms of gonorrheaSymptoms may be absent despite an active gonorrheal infection. Symptoms can appear anywhere from 1-14 days following exposure to the infection.Men and women experience slightly different symptoms; these can include:
  • Men:
    • white, yellow, or green urethral discharge, resembling pus
    • pain in the testicles or scrotum
    • painful or frequent urination
    • anal discharge, itching, pain, bleeding, or pain when passing stools
    • itching, difficulty swallowing, or swollen neck lymph nodes
    • eye pain, light sensitivity, or eye discharge resembling pus
    • red, swollen, warm, painful joints
    • painful sexual intercourse
    • fever
    • yellow or green vaginal discharge
    • vulvar swelling
    • bleeding in-between periods
    • heavier periods
    • bleeding after intercourse
    • vomiting and abdominal or pelvic pain
    • painful or frequent urination
    • anal discharge, itching, pain, bleeding, or pain with passing bowel movements
    • sore throat, itching, difficulty swallowing, or swollen neck lymph nodes
    • eye pain, light sensitivity, and eye discharge resembling pus
    • red, swollen, warm, painful joints
  • Treatment for gonorrhea

    Antibiotics forms part of the treatment of gonorrhea.
    Upon displaying symptoms, a doctor may recommend a test for gonorrhea in addition to other diseases. Testing for gonorrhea can be completed by analyzing a urine sample or a swab of an affected area. Swab samples are commonly taken from the penis, cervix, urethra, anus, and throat.
    Home kits for women are also available that include vaginal swabs. These kits are sent to a laboratory and results are reported directly to the patient.
    If testing is positive for a gonorrhea infection, the individual and their partner will need to undergo treatment. This typically involves:
    • Antibiotics - a doctor will likely administer both a shot (ceftriaxone) and an oral medication (azithromycin).
    • Abstaining from sexual intercourse - until treatment is complete, there is still a risk of complications and spread of infection.
    • Repeat testing in some cases - it is not always necessary to be tested to make sure the treatment has worked. However, the CDC recommends retesting for some patients, and a doctor will decide if it is necessary. Retesting should be performed 7 days after treatment.
    If a woman is pregnant and infected with gonorrhea, the infant will be given an eye ointment to prevent gonorrhea transmission. However, antibiotics may be required if an eye infection develops.
  • Complications of gonorrhea

    There are many serious potential complications, which highlights the need for a quick diagnosis and treatment if symptoms occur.
    In women, gonorrhea can lead to:
    • pelvic inflammatory disease, a condition that can cause abscesses
    • chronic pelvic pain
    • infertility
    • ectopic pregnancies - pregnancy where the embryo attaches outside of the uterus
    In men, a gonorrheal infection can lead to:
    Both men and women are at risk of developing a life-threatening disseminated gonococcal infection when gonorrhea is untreated. This type of infection is often characterized by:
    • fever
    • arthritis
    • tenosynovitis - inflammation and swelling around tendons
    • dermatitis
    Those infected with gonorrhea are also at a higher risk of contracting HIV or, if already HIV positive, spreading HIV in addition to gonorrhea.
    Further complications of a gonorrheal infection can occur in pregnant women during delivery; it is possible to pass the infection to the child. Gonorrhea passed to an infant can cause joint infection, blindness, or a life-threatening blood infection.
    Also, infected women are at an increased risk for premature labor or stillbirth if left untreated.
  • credit/source: