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Date Posted: November 27, 2017
State pension fund Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) will start releasing on December 1 more than Php 2.7 billion in Christmas cash gift to its old-age and disability pensioners.
Pensioners whose 2016 Christmas cash gift was above Php10,000 will be granted an amount equivalent to one-month current pension up to a maximum of Php12,600. Those whose 2016 cash gift was Php10,000 and below are entitled to receive an amount equivalent to one-month pension, but not to exceed Php10,000.
Retirees who availed of five-year lump-sum retirement benefit under Republic Act (RA) 8291 and resumed their regular monthly pension after December 31, 2016 will receive their cash gift for the first time this year, in an amount equivalent to a month’s pension up to a maximum of Php10,000.
Pensioners living abroad and those in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao who are on suspended status as of December 31, 2017 are also eligible to receive the cash gift, provided that they activate their status on or before April 30, 2018.
New retirees from 2013 to 2017 who availed of immediate pension under RA 8291 will receive their cash gift five years after their retirement date. Similarly, members who were separated from the service from 2006 to 2017 before reaching 60 years old and who started receiving their regular monthly pension between 2013 and 2017 will be entitled to the benefit five years after regularly receiving their pension.
For inquiries on the grant of Christmas cash gift, pensioners may call the GSIS Contact Center at 847-4747; email firstname.lastname@example.org; or send a private message to the official GSIS Facebook account, @gsis.ph. They may also visit the GSIS website, www.gsis.gov.ph, for more details.
Fibromyalgia (fy-bro-my-Al-ja) is a common and chronic syndrome that causes bodily pain and mental distress. Symptoms include severe pain and tiredness, which can make it hard to carry daily activities.
Symptoms of fibromyalgia can be confused with those of arthritis, or joint inflammation. However, unlike arthritis, it does not cause joint or muscle inflammation and damage. It is seen as a rheumatic condition, in other words, one that causes soft tissue pain or myofascial pain.
According to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), around 5 million adults aged 18 years or over in the United States (U.S.) experience fibromyalgia, and 80 to 90 percent of fibromyalgia patients are women.
It can take some time to confirm a diagnosis of fibromyalgia, because the symptoms resemble those of other conditions. These conditions must first be ruled out before diagnosing fibromyalgia.
There are no laboratory tests for the condition, and this, too, can lead to delayed or missed diagnosis.
The American College of Rheumatology has established three criteria for diagnosing fibromyalgia.
Pain and symptoms over the previous week, out of 19 identified body parts, plus levels of fatigue, unsatisfactory sleep, or cognitive problems
Symptoms that have been ongoing for at least 3 months
No presence of another health problem that would explain the symptoms
Treatment and outlook
Medical attention is needed, because fibromyalgia can be difficult to manage. As it is a syndrome, each patient will experience a different set of symptoms, and an individual treatment plan will be necessary.
Treatment will usually include some or all of the following:
Around 20 percent of people with fibromyalgia try acupuncture within the first 2 years. It may work, but more research is needed.
These may include over-the counter (OTC) pain relievers, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs).
Antidepressants, such as duloxetine, or Cymbalta, and milnacipran, or Savella, may help reduce pain. Anti-seizure drugs, such as gabapentin also known as Neurontin, and pregabalin, or Lyrica, may be prescribed.
However, a review has suggested that patients often stop using these drugs because they are not effective in relieving pain or because of their adverse effects.
Patients should tell the doctor about any other medications they are taking, to avoid side-effects and interactions with other drugs.
A combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training, or strength training, has been linked to a reduction in pain, tenderness, stiffness, and sleep disturbance, in some patients.
If exercise is helping with symptoms, it is important to maintain consistency in order to see progress. Working out with a partner or personal trainer may help to keep the exercise program active.
Some patients have experienced improvements in their quality of life after starting acupuncture therapy for fibromyalgia. The number of sessions required will depend on the symptoms and their severity.
One study found that 1 in 5 people with fibromyalgia use acupuncture within 2 years of diagnosis. The researchers concluded that it "may improve pain and stiffness." However, they call for more studies.
Behavior modification therapy
Behavior modification therapy is a form of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) that aims to reducenegative, stress- or pain-increasing behaviors and improve positive, mindful behaviors. It includes learning new coping skills and relaxation exercises.
If we were to measure by peak height above sea level then starting with Mount Everest all 25 of the tallest mountains in the world would be in the Himalayas. The problem with doing that, however, is that the dividing line between a mountain with multiple peaks and separate mountains is not always clear. For this reason a better measurement to use is called “topographic prominence” (basically how much the mountain sticks out from the surrounding landscape). So, while Mount Kilimanjaro’s peak is not as far away from sea level as any number of peaks in the Himalayas, the difference between its base and its peak is much greater. With that in mind these are the 25 tallest mountains in the world.
1. Mount Everest
Mount Everest or Qomolangma is the highest mountain in the world, with a peak at 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) above sea level. It is also the tallest mountain in the world from base to peak. Mount Everest is located in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas. The international border between China and Nepal runs across the precise summit point.
Aconcagua is the tallest mountain in the Americas at 6,960.8 m (22,837.3 ft). It is located in the Andes mountain range, in the province of Mendoza, Argentina, and lies 112 kilometres (70 mi) west by north of its capital, the city of Mendoza.
3. Mount McKinley
Mount McKinley, or Denali (Koyukon Athabaskan for “The High One”), in Alaska, is the tallest mountain peak in the United States and in North America, with a summit elevation of 20,320 feet (6,194 m) above sea level.
4. Mount Kilimanjaro
Kilimanjaro, with its three volcanic cones, Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira, is a dormant volcanic mountain in Kilimanjaro National Park, Tanzania. It is the tallest mountain in Africa at 5,895 metres or 19,341 feet above sea level.
5. Pico Cristóbal Colón
Pico Cristóbal Colón is the tallest mountain in Colombia, with an estimated height of 5,700 metres (18,700 ft).
6. Mount Logan
Mount Logan is the tallest mountain in Canada and the second-highest peak in North America, after Mount McKinley (Denali).
7. Pico de Orizaba
The Pico de Orizaba, or Citlaltépetl, is a stratovolcano, the tallest mountain in Mexico and the third highest in North America. It rises 5,636 metres (18,491 ft) above sea level in the eastern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, on the border between the states of Veracruz and Puebla.
Vinson Massif is the highest mountain of Antarctica, lying in the Sentinel Range of the Ellsworth Mountains, which stand above the Ronne Ice Shelf near the base of the Antarctic Peninsula.
9. Puncak Jaya
Puncak Jaya or Carstensz Pyramid (4,884 m) is the highest summit of Mount Carstensz in the Sudirman Range of the western central highlands of Papua province, Indonesia.
10. Mount Elbrus
Mount Elbrus is a dormant volcano located in the western Caucasus mountain range, in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia, Russia, near the border of Georgia. Its peak is the highest in the Caucasus, in Russia.
Mont Blanc or Monte Bianco (Italian), meaning “White Mountain”, is the tallest mountain in the Alps, Western Europe, and the European Union and rises 4,810.45 m (15,782 ft) above sea level
Mount Damāvand, a potentially active volcano and the highest peak in Iran, has a special place in Persian mythology and folklore. It is located in the middle Alborz Range, adjacent to the highest volcano in all of Asia
Klyuchevskaya Sopka is a stratovolcano which is the highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and the highest active volcano of Eurasia. Its steep, symmetrical cone towers about 100 kilometres (60 mi) from the Bering Sea
Nanga Parbat (literally, Naked Mountain) is the ninth tallest mountain in the world and the western anchor of the Himalayas. Located in Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, it has an immense, dramatic peak rising far above its surrounding terrain and has had a notable incidence of tragedy associated with its climbing.
15. Mauna Kea
Mauna Kea is a volcano on the island of Hawaii. Standing 13,803 ft (4,207 m) above sea level, its peak is the highest point in the U.S. state of Hawaii.
16. Jengish Chokusu
Jengish Chokusu is the highest mountain in the Tian Shan mountain system at 7,439 metres (24,406 ft). It lies on the Kyrgyzstan–China border southeast of lake Issyk Kul.
Chimborazo is a currently inactive stratovolcano located in the Cordillera Occidental range of the Andes. Its last known eruption is believed to have occurred around 550 AD and with a peak elevation of 6,268 metres (20,564 ft), Chimborazo is the tallest mountain in Ecuador.
18. Bogda Peak
Bogda Peak or Bogda Feng is the highest mountain in the Bogda Shan range, in the eastern Tien Shan mountains, China, at 5,445 m (17,864 ft).
19. Namcha Barwa
Namcha Barwa or Namchabarwa is a mountain in the Tibetan Himalaya. The traditional definition of the Himalaya extending from the Indus River to the Brahmaputra would make it the eastern anchor of the entire mountain chain, and it is the highest peak of its own section as well as Earth’s easternmost peak over 7,600 metres.
Mount Kinabalu is a prominent mountain on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. It is located in the East Malaysian state of Sabah and is protected as Kinabalu National Park, a World Heritage Site.
21. Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier is a massive stratovolcano located 54 miles (87 km) southeast of Seattle in the state of Washington, United States. It is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States and the Cascade Volcanic Arc, with a summit elevation of 14,411 ft (4,392 m).
K2 is the second-highest mountain on Earth, after Mount Everest and is located on the border of Pakistan and China. It is also known as the Savage Mountain due to the difficulty of ascent and the second-highest fatality rate among the “eight thousanders” for those who climb it. For every four people who have reached the summit, one has died trying. Unlike Annapurna, the mountain with the highest fatality-to-summit rate, K2 has never been climbed in winter.
23. Ras Dashen
Ras Dashen is the highest mountain in Ethiopia and tenth highest mountain of Africa. Part of Semien Mountains National Park, it reaches an elevation of 4,550 metres (14,928 ft).
Volcán Tajumulco is a large stratovolcano in the department of San Marcos in western Guatemala. It is the highest mountain in Central America at 4,220 metres (13,845 ft). Tajumulco has had several historical reports of volcanic eruptions, but none have been confirmed to be true eruptions.
Pico Bolívar is the highest mountain in Venezuela, at 4,978 metres. Located in Mérida State, its top is permanently covered with névé snow and three small glaciers.
Depending upon how you define "highest mountain," Mount Everest has some rivals!
Highest Altitude: An altitude of 8,850 meters (29,035 feet) above sea level makes Mount Everest the mountain on Earth with the highest altitude. "Highest altitude" means that it has the highest elevation above mean sea level.
Mount Everest: Highest Altitude
Almost everyone calls Mount Everest "the highest mountain in the world," and climbers from everywhere travel to Everest hoping to earn the distinction of climbing the "World's Highest."
What does "world's highest" really mean?
Mount Everest is called the world's highest mountain because it has the "highest elevation above sea level." We could also say that it has the "highest altitude."
The peak of Mount Everest is 8,850 meters (29,035 feet) above sea level. No other mountain on Earth has a higher altitude. However, some mountains might be considered "taller" (with taller being "the total vertical distance between their base and their summit").
Tallest Mountain: The base of Mauna Kea is about 6000 meters below sea level, and the summit is about 4000 meters above sea level. The distance between the foot of the mountain and the summit is about 10,000 meters. This makes Mauna Kea the "tallest" mountain in the world.
Snow in Hawaii? Satellite view of the island of Hawaii. The two snow caps are Mauna Loa (center) and Mauna Kea (to the north). Image by NASA.
Mauna Kea: Tallest Mountain
Mauna Kea has an altitude of 4,205 meters (13,796 feet) - much lower than Mount Everest. However, Mauna Kea is an island, and if the distance from the bottom of the nearby Pacific Ocean floor to the peak of the island is measured, then Mauna Kea is "taller" than Mount Everest.
Mauna Kea is over 10,000 meters tall compared to 8,850 meters for Mount Everest - making it the "world's tallest mountain."
Highest Above Earth's Center: The Earth does not have the shape of a perfect sphere. Instead, its diameter is greatest near the equator. In the diagram above, the gray dashed line is a perfect circle, and the solid blue line represents the shape of the earth (exaggerated a bit to make its departure from spherical obvious). Chimborazo is located near the equator where Earth's diameter is greatest. This makes the summit of Chimborazo the highest point above the center of the Earth.
Chimborazo: Highest Above Earth's Center
Chimborazo in Ecuador has an altitude of 6,310 meters (20,703 feet). Mount Everest has a higher altitude, and Mauna Kea is "taller." However, Chimborazo has the distinction of being the "highest mountain above Earth's center."
This is because Earth is not a sphere - it is an oblate spheroid. As an oblate spheroid, Earth is widest at its equator. Chimborazo is just one degree south of the equator. At that location, it is 6,384 kilometers (3,967 miles) above Earth's center, or about 2 kilometers (about 1.2 miles) farther from Earth's center than Mount Everest.