Thursday, July 30, 2015



Out of frustration, Josephine Cochrane invented the dishwasher. She'd been angry that hired domestic help continually broke and chipped her fine china. Cochrane's dishwasher used high water pressure aimed at a wire rack of dishes, she received a patent for it in 1886. During this era, most houses didn't have the technology of a hot water system to run such a machine, but Cochrane persisted and sold her idea to hotels and restaurants. Eventually dishwashers moved into households as more and more women entered the workplace.



Jacobs was awarded a US patent in 1914 for a Brassiere that supported the breasts up from the shoulders and separated them into two individual shapes. People had experimented with making Brassieres before, but it was the idea of "separating the breasts," that made her design unique. Prior to Brassieres (or bras) women’s undergarments were uncomfortable. Containing whalebones and steel rods, they virtually squeezed the wearer into "shape". Jacobs' design was in contrast, soft and light, conforming to the wearer’s anatomy. During WWI her bra design became popular when the U.S. government requested that women stop purchasing corsets in order to conserve metal. Although by this time Jacobs had sold the patent to Warner Brothers Corset Company.


Admiral Dr. Grace Murray Hopper is known as the "mother of computers"! After WWII, Hopper was stationed at Harvard, where she worked on the development of the IBM-Harvard Mark 1, the first large-scale computer in the U.S. Dr. Hopper also invented the compiler, which translates written language into computer code. She coined the term "bug" for a computer problem, and co-developed COBOL, the first user-friendly business computer software program. As a woman inventor, she won numerous awards, including the National Medal of Technology in 1991. By the time she passed away, Dr. Hopper had received honorary degrees from 30 universities.


Can you imagine, in the early 1900s if it was raining or snowing, drivers had to stop every few blocks to wipe their windshields?! Mary Anderson solved that. Although cars were rare at the time, Anderson took a notice to the situation and by 1903 she invented the wipers. It was the ingenious squeegee on a spindle attached to a handle inside the car. All the driver had to do to clear the windshield was pull down on a handle. People were initially leery of Anderson's windshield wiper, thinking it would distract drivers, but 10 years after she patented the device, virtually every car used her invention. Also did you know, it was a woman inventor who first patented the automatic windshield wiper in 1917? It was Charlotte Bridgwood and her, "Storm Windshield Cleaner".


The patented "Secret Communications Systems" in 1941, manipulated radio frequencies with an unbreakable code to prevent classified messages from being intercepted by enemy. Lamarr was raised in Austria and married a millionaire, who was a Nazi sympathizer and arms dealer to Hitler during WWII. While married, she learned about advanced weaponry as she accompanied her husband to business meetings. She grew to despise the Nazis as well as her husband and eventually escaped to London and then to the U.S. The device she invented with Anthiel was meant to be used against the Nazis in WWII, but in actuality it came into use 20 years later.                                              source:
NOTE: All photos rights reserved to writer's source.  



Before the paper bag, the 1st version was shaped like an envelope, with no flat bottom. How were you supposed to fit your sandwich into that? Knight solved this by creating a machine to cut, fold, and glue square bottoms to paper bags! She gained a patent for it in 1871, but not without a lawsuit against a fellow who stole her idea. His defense was "a woman could never design such an innovative machine," but she had the drawings to prove the invention was in fact hers and she won the case. Knight's career with inventions started at age 12, when she developed a stop-motion device that immediately brought industrial machines to a halt if something was caught in them. Over the course of her lifetime, she was awarded over 26 patents.


In the early 1800s, two men were required to work a lumber saw by pulling and pushing, back and forth. But thanks to a woman, the process became much simpler. In 1813, Tabitha Babbitt created the circular saw! Babbitt's saw was circular so that the teeth would continue cutting, unlike the straight saws that only cut on the pull, and not the push motion. We also commonly use her other building innovations, like machine-cut nails instead of individually hand-crafted nails. As a Massachusetts Shaker community member, she helped create tool innovations for furniture making. It's said that while she lived a simple Shaker life, Babbitt never applied for patents.


Stephanie Kwolek invented Kevlar, a tough durable material now used to make bulletproof vests. For years she'd worked on the process at DuPont and in 1963, she got the polymers or rod-like molecules in fibers to line up in one direction. This made the material stronger than others, where molecules were arranged in bundles. In fact, the new material was as strong as steel! Kwolek's technology also went on to be used for making suspension bridge cables, helmets, brake pads, skis, and camping gear.


The inventor of "Liquid Paper" or as we may know it, "White-Out" was Betty Nesmith Graham. Graham got an idea she'd seen done by sign painters, which was to add another layer of paint to cover-up mistakes. She used a kitchen blender to mix-up her first batch of substance to cover-up over mistakes made on paper at work. After much experimenting and then being fired for spending so much time distributing her product as a trial, she received a patent in 1958.


Parker was an African-American inventor who in 1919, filed the first U.S. patent for the precursor to a central heating system. The system was able to regulate the temperature of a building and carry heat from room to room. The drawings included for the patent show a heating furnace powered by gas. An entire house required several heating units, each controlled by individual hot air ducts. The ducts directed heat to different parts of a building structure. Many people now no longer needed to chop or buy wood and coal to stay warm. There's not much more known about Parker's life, but her invention of the heating furnace has revolutionized how we live today.                                
  Note: All photos rights reserved to the writer's source.                                     

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

Heavy water (D2O),deuterium oxide

Chemical Compound: D2O
Alternative titles: D2O; deuterium oxide
heavy water (D2O), also called deuterium oxide water composed of deuterium, the hydrogen isotopewith a mass double that of ordinary hydrogen, and oxygen. (Ordinary water has a composition represented by H2O.) Thus, heavy water has a molecular weight of about 20 (the sum of twice the atomic weight of deuterium, which is 2, plus the atomic weight of oxygen, which is 16), whereas ordinary water has a molecular weight of about 18 (twice the atomic weight of ordinary hydrogen, which is 1, plus oxygen, which is 16).

Ordinary water as obtained from most natural sources contains about one deuterium atom for every 6,760 ordinary hydrogen atoms. and the residual water is thus enriched in deuterium content. Continued electrolysis of hundreds of litres of water until only a few millilitres remain yields practically pure deuterium oxide. This operation, until 1943 the only large-scale method used, has been superseded by less expensive processes, such as fractional distillation (D2O becomes      concentrated in the liquid residue because it is less volatile than H2O). The heavy water         produced is used as a moderator of neutrons in nuclear power plants.                                                     In the laboratory heavy water is employed as an isotopic tracer in studies of chemical and   biochemical processes.
For complete information click on the link:

Heavy water is water which contains a higher proportion than normal of the isotope deuterium, as deuterium oxide, D2O or ²H2O, or as deuterium protium oxide, HDO or ¹H²HO.[1] Its physical and chemical properties are somewhat similar to those of water, H2O. Heavy water may contain as much as 100% D2O, and usually the term refers to water which is highly enriched in deuterium. The isotopic substitution with deuterium alters the bond energy of the hydrogen-oxygen bond in water, altering the physical, chemical, and especially biological properties of the pure or highly-enriched substance to a larger degree than is found in most isotope-substituted chemical compounds.
Heavy water should not be confused with hard water or with tritiated water.

Heavy water (at 100% D enrichment): D2O
IUPAC nameDeuterium oxide
Other namesWater d2
Heavy water
Dideuterium monoxide
CAS number7789-20-0
RTECS numberZC0230000
Molecular formulaD2O
Molar mass20.04 g/mol
Appearancetransparent, colorless liquid
Density1.1056, liquid (20°C)
1.0177, solid (at m.p)
Melting point
3.82 °C, 38.88 °F (276.97 °K)
Boiling point
101.4 °C, 214.56 °F (374.55 °K)
Viscosity0.00125 Pa·s at 20 °C
Dipole moment1.87 D
NFPA 704
Related Compounds
Related solventsacetonemethanol
Related compoundswater vaporice
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Other meanings

Semiheavy water

Semiheavy water, HDO, also exists whenever there is water with hydrogen-1 (or protium) and deuterium present in the mixture. This is because hydrogen atoms (hydrogen-1 and deuterium) are rapidly exchanged between water molecules. Water containing 50% H and 50% D in its hydrogen actually contains about 50% HDO and 25% each of H2O and D2O, in dynamic equilibrium. Semiheavy water, HDO, occurs naturally in regular water at a proportion of about 1 molecule in 3,200 (each hydrogen has a probability of 1 in 6,400 of being D). Heavy water, D2O, by comparison, occurs naturally at a proportion of about 1 molecule in 41 million (i.e., 1 in 6,4002).

Heavy-oxygen water

A common type of heavy-oxygen water H218O is available commercially for use as a non-radioactive isotopic tracer (see doubly-labeled water for discussion), and qualifies as "heavy water" insofar as having a higher density than normal water (in this case, similar density to deuterium oxide). Even more expensively, water is available in which the oxygen is 17O. However, these types of heavy-isotope water are rarely referred to as "heavy water", as they do not contain the deuterium which gives D2O its characteristically different nuclear and biological properties. Heavy-oxygen waters with normal hydrogen, for example, would not be expected to show any toxicity whatsoever (see discussion of toxicity below).

Physical properties (with comparison to light water)

PropertyD2O (Heavy water)H2O (Light water)
Freezing point (°C)3.820.0
Boiling point (°C)101.4100.0
Density (at 20°C, g/mL)1.10560.9982
Temp. of maximum density (°C)11.64.0
Viscosity (at 20°C, mPa·s)1.251.005
Surface tension (at 25°C, μJ)7.1937.197
Heat of fusion (cal/mol)1,5151,436
Heat of vaporisation (cal/mol)10,86410,515
pH (at 25°C)7.41 (sometimes "pD")7.00
No physical properties are listed for "pure" semi-heavy water, because it cannot be isolated in bulk quantities. In the liquid state, a few water molecules are always in an ionised state, which means the hydrogen atoms can exchange among different oxygen atoms. A sample of hypothetical "pure" semi-heavy water would rapidly transform into a dynamic mixture of 25% light water, 25% heavy water, and 50% semi-heavy water.
Physical properties obvious by inspection: Heavy water is 10.6% more dense than ordinary water, a difference which is nearly impossible to notice in a sample of it (which otherwise looks and tastes exactly like normal water). One of the few ways to demonstrate heavy water's physically different properties without equipment, is to freeze a sample and drop it into normal water. Ice made from heavy water sinks in normal water. If the normal water is ice-cold this phenomenon may be observed long enough for a good demonstration, since heavy-water ice has a slightly higher melting-temperature (3.8 °C) than normal ice, and thus holds up very well in ice-cold normal water. [1]


Harold Urey discovered the isotope deuterium in 1931 and was later able to concentrate it in water. Urey's mentorGilbert Newton Lewis isolated the first sample of pure heavy water by electrolysis in 1933. George de Hevesy and Hoffer used heavy water in 1934 in one of the first biological tracer experiments, to estimate the rate of turnover of water in the human body. The history of large-quantity production and use of heavy water in early nuclear experiments is given below.[2]

Effect on biological systems

Heavy isotopes of chemical elements have very slightly different chemical behaviors, but for most elements the differences in chemical behavior between isotopes are far too small to use, or even detect. For hydrogen, however, this is not true. The larger chemical isotope-effects seen with deuterium and tritium manifest because bond energies in chemistry are determined in quantum mechanics by equations in which the quantity of reduced mass of the nucleus and electrons appears. This quantity is altered in heavy-hydrogen compounds (of which deuterium oxide is the most common and familiar) far more than for heavy-isotope substitution in other chemical elements. This isotope effect of heavy hydrogen is magnified further in biological systems, which are very sensitive to small changes in the solvent properties of water.
To perform their tasks, enzymes rely on their finely tuned networks of hydrogen bonds, both in the active center with their substrates, and outside the active center, to stabilize their tertiary structures. As a hydrogen bond with deuterium is slightly stronger than one involving ordinary hydrogen, in a highly deuterated environment, some normal reactions in cells are disrupted.
Particularly hard-hit by heavy water are the delicate assemblies of mitotic spindle formation necessary for cell division in eukaryotes. Because eukaryotic cell division stops in heavy water, seeds therefore do not germinate in heavy water, and plants stop growing when given only heavy water.

Effect on animals

Experiments in mice, rats, and dogs[3] have shown that a degree of 25% deuteration causes (sometimes irreversible) sterility, because neither gametes nor zygotes can develop. High concentrations of heavy water (90%) rapidly kills fish, tadpoles, flatworms, and drosophila. Mammals such as rats given heavy water to drink die after a week, at a time when their body water approaches about 50% deuteration. The mode of death appears to be the same as that in cytotoxic poisoning (such as chemotherapy) or in acute radiation syndrome (though deuterium is not radioactive), and is due to deuterium's action in generally inhibiting cell division. Deuterium oxide is used to enhance boron neutron capture therapy.[3] It is more toxic to malignant cells than normal cells but the concentrations needed are too high for regular use.[3] As in chemotherapy, deuterium-poisoned mammals die of a failure of bone marrow (bleeding and infection) and intestinal-barrier functions (diarrhea and fluid loss).
Notwithstanding the problems of plants and animals in living with too much deuterium, prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria (which do not have the mitotic problems induced by deuterium) may be grown and propagated in fully deuterated conditions, resulting in replacement of all hydrogen atoms in the bacterial proteins and DNA with the deuterium isotope.[3] Full replacement with heavy atom isotopes can be accomplished in higher organisms with other non-radioactive heavy isotopes (such as carbon-13 and nitrogen-15), but this cannot be done for the stable heavy isotope of hydrogen.

Toxicity in humans

Because it would take a very great deal of heavy water to replace 25% to 50% of a human being's body water (which in turn is 70% of body weight) with heavy water, accidental or intentional poisoning with heavy water is unlikely to the point of practical disregard. For a poisoning, large amounts of heavy water would need to be ingested without significant normal water intake for many days to produce any noticeable toxic effects (although in a few tests, volunteers drinking large amounts of heavy water have reported dizziness, a possible effect of density changes in the fluid in the inner ear). For example, a 70 kg human containing 50 kg of water and drinking 3 liters of pure heavy water per day, would need to do this for almost 5 days to reach 25% deuteration, and for about 11 days to approach 50% deuteration. Thus, it would take a week of drinking nothing but pure heavy water for a human to begin to feel ill, and 10 days to 2 weeks (depending on water intake) for severe poisoning and death. In the highly unlikely event that a human were to receive a toxic dose of heavy water, the treatment would involve the use of intravenous water replacement (due to possible intestinal dysfunction and problems with absorption of fluids). This would be done via 0.9% (normal physiologic) saline solution with other salts as needed, perhaps in conjunction with diuretics.
Oral doses of heavy water in the multi-gram range, along with heavy oxygen 18O, are routinely used in human metabolic experiments. See doubly-labeled water testing. Since 1 in every 6400 hydrogen atoms is deuterium, a 50 kg human containing 32 kg of body water would normally contain enough deuterium (about 1.1 gram) to make 5.5 grams of pure heavy water, so roughly this dose is required to double the amount of deuterium in the body.

Confused report of a "heavy water" contamination incident

In 1990, a disgruntled employee at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station in Canada obtained a sample (estimated as about a "half cup") of heavy water from the primary heat transport loop of the nuclear reactor, and loaded it into the employee water cooler. Eight employees drank some of the contaminated water. The incident was discovered when employees began leaving bioassay urine samples with elevated tritium levels. The quantity of heavy water involved was far below levels which could induce heavy water toxicity per se, but several employees received elevated radiation doses from tritium and neutron-activated chemicals in the water.[4] This was not an incident of heavy water poisoning, but rather radiation poisoning from other isotopes in the heavy water. Some news services were not careful to distinguish these points, and some of the public was left with the impression that heavy water is normally radioactive and more severely toxic than it is. Even if pure heavy water had been used in the water cooler indefinitely, it is not likely the incident would have been detected or caused harm, since no employees would be expected to get as much as 25% of their daily drinking water from such a source.[5]


On Earth, semiheavy water, HDO, occurs naturally in regular water at a proportion of about 1 molecule in 3200. This means that 1 in 6400 hydrogen atoms is deuterium, which is 1 part in 3200 by weight (hydrogen weight). The HDO may be separated from regular water by distillation or electrolysis and also by various chemical exchange processes, all of which exploit a kinetic isotope effect. (For more information about the isotopic distribution of deuterium in water, see Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water.)
The difference in mass between the two hydrogen isotopes translates into a difference in the zero-point energy and thus into a slight difference in the speed at which the reaction proceeds. Once HDO becomes a significant fraction of the water, heavy water will become more prevalent as water molecules trade hydrogen atoms very frequently. To produce pure heavy water by distillation or electrolysis requires a large cascade of stills or electrolysis chambers, and consumes large amounts of power, so the chemical methods are generally preferred. The most important chemical method is the Girdler sulfide process.

For complete information read on the link below.


This article is licensed under the @GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Heavy_water". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.

 Note:The two articles posted and data All rights reserved on the writers' sources

 and references.

Friday, July 24, 2015

How to Make Ice Cream Without a Machine (Finally)

How to Make Ice Cream Without a Machine (Hooray!) photo

photo credit :Ditte Isager

and written by: Rochelle Bilow

Nothing beats a bowl of sweet, smooth ice cream—well, except maybe a cone of it. When we can’t make it to one of our favorite ice cream parlors, we’re big fans of homemade ice cream. While you will achieve the best, most consistently creamy results—without an icy or granular texture—if you use an ice cream machine, we understand that not everyone has the budget or room for yet another appliance. Happily, we’ve got a few tips for making ice cream at home without an ice cream maker. Way cool.
 Whip and Fold       
To achieve a creamy, silky consistency without the ice cream maker, you only need two inexpensive kitchen tools: a whisk and a rubber spatula. The secret to ice cream’s rich consistency is a custard base, made from gently cooked sugar, egg yolks, and cream. Traditionally, it’s then churned in an ice cream maker until it thickens and freezes.
 Here’s how to game the system:

Prepare the custard per usual by slowly adding hot cream into the egg yolk-sugar base. Work slowly and add it in a steady stream, so the cream doesn’t scramble the eggs. Then, whip an additional three-quarters of a cup of cream (depending on the size of the recipe, of course). Add any mix-ins—sauce, swirls, chocolate chunks, berries, etc.—and then gently fold in the whipped “raw” cream to the custard base. Use a bowl large enough to accommodate the volume for the airy whipped cream, and allow the custard to cool slightly before mixing in the whipped cream, or the heat will deflate the whipped cream. Freeze in a plastic-lined loaf pan for at least six hours. Want to make the Raspberry Ice Cream pictured at the top of the page? Complete machine-less instructions, right this way.
Crack a Can of Condensed Milk
Remember when we said that a custard is required for a creamy, thick consistency? Well, not quite. You can make things even easier on yourself by skipping the custard completely and swapping it out for a can of sweetened condensed milk. The condensed milk’s texture is a dead-ringer for custard. Combine it with whipped cream as instructed above, freeze, and dig in.
Grab Some Bananas
Okay, so cream-less ice cream isn’t technically ice cream, but magical things happen when you combine ripe bananas with fresh, seasonal fruit.This recipe for Banana and Blueberry “Ice Cream” is proof. The inherent creamy, smooth texture of the bananas is a dead-ringer for frozen custard—plus, they’re naturally sweet. For the best results, use bananas that are very ripe (even verging on squishy and brown; think specimens that you’d typically use for banana bread).
A drizzle of simple syrup or other liquid sweetener, like honey or agave, would be great, but taste the “ice cream” before adding it in: When the fruit is ripe and juicy, it often adds all the sweetness you need. Avoid granulated sugar, which won’t combine fully with the frozen fruit, and will impart a gritty texture. Other combinations to try with your frozen banana base:
Strawberries + Raspberries + Finely Chopped Ginger
Pitted Cherries + Black Pepper (just a little!)
Blueberries + Peanut Butter + Chocolate Chips + Caramel Swirl (purée the fruit, then add PB, chips, and caramel in with a spatula)
Incorporate Some Air
Proper ice cream is light and dreamy, and made voluminous with whipped air—it shouldn’t be too dense. So keep this in mind when making summer’s best frozen treat: Your goal is to incorporate air. This can be achieved through traditional churning (with a traditional machine), whipping (whisks at the ready), or puréeing (banana food processor magic). If your hacked (i.e.: machine-less) homemade ice cream seems too thick or leaden, let it sit at room temperature just long enough for it to be malleable, then fold in super cold whipped cream, strained plain yogurt, mascarpone cheese, or crème fraîche. And when all else fails, douse it in chocolate syrup and top with rainbow sprinkles. After all: Isn’t itreally all about the toppings?
Note:please read the instructions carefully.

Wednesday, July 22, 2015

Scarf Knotting

Hermès scarf knotting cards

The third volume of Hermès knotting cards has arrived, featuring the Spring/Summer 2010 Collection.

Hope you enjoy, have fun experimenting!

credit to Hermes used by the models on these pictures but pls make use scarf with what you have on your closet/cabinet only the size of the scarf matters-that is a big /huge one.