Monday, June 24, 2013

Health-Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of humans and animals that is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira (see the image below). It is considered the most common zoonosis in the world.
A scanning electron micrograph depicting Leptospir
A scanning electron micrograph depicting Leptospira atop a 0.1-ยตm polycarbonate filter.
(This image is in the public domain and thus free of any copyright restrictions.
Creidt/Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control/Rob Weyant)

Credit/Source: 
http://emedicine.medscape.com

Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and animals. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, some of which may be mistaken for other diseases. Some infected persons, however, may have no symptoms at all.
Without treatment, Leptospirosis can lead to kidney damage, meningitis (inflammation of the membrane around the brain and spinal cord), liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death.

Risk of Exposure

Leptospirosis occurs worldwide, but is most common in temperate or tropical climates. It is an occupational hazard for many people who work outdoors or with animals.
The disease has also been associated with swimming, wading, kayaking, and rafting in contaminated lakes and rivers. As such, it is a recreational hazard for campers or those who participate in outdoor sports. The risk is likely greater for those who participate in these activities in tropical or temperate climates.
In addition, incidence of Leptospirosis infection among urban children appears to be increasing.

 Note: When there is flood due to heavy rainstorm and has to pass or walk over on the flood and you have skin disease or open wound be careful it can go through that wound the water that has been contaminated of animals with their urine/feces. It may cause also be aware of the possibility of infection. Or by any chance /accidentally to swallow flood water while walking/swimming almost a high water of the flood because there is no other way to leave the flooded area. Have yourself be seen by physician or have a laboratory procedure. Wear footwear to protect your lower limbs by wearing boots.

Symptoms

In humans, Leptospirosis can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
  • High fever
  • Headache
  • Chills
  • Muscle aches
  • Vomiting
  • Jaundice (yellow skin and eyes)
  • Red eyes
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Rash
Many of these symptoms can be mistaken for other diseases. In addition, some infected persons may have no symptoms at all.
The time between a person's exposure to a contaminated source and becoming sick is 2 days to 4 weeks. Illness usually begins abruptly with fever and other symptoms. Leptospirosis may occur in two phases:
  • after the first phase (with fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, vomiting, or diarrhea) the patient may recover for a time but become ill again.
  • if a second phase occurs, it is more severe; the person may have kidney or liver failure or meningitis. This phase is also called Weil's disease.
The illness lasts from a few days to 3 weeks or longer. Without treatment, recovery may take several months.

Treatment

Leptospirosis is treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or penicillin, which should be given early in the course of the disease.
Intravenous antibiotics may be required for persons with more severe symptoms. Persons with symptoms suggestive of leptospirosis should contact a health care provider.

Prevention

The risk of acquiring leptospirosis can be greatly reduced by not swimming or wading in water that might be contaminated with animal urine, or eliminating contact with potentially infected animals.
Protective clothing or footwear should be worn by those exposed to contaminated water or soil because of their job or recreational activities.
For more information :
credit/source: http://www.cdc.gov/leptospirosis/
Courtesy of Center for Disease and Prevention