Monday, April 29, 2013

Health- Seasonal Influenza(H7N9), Influenza Type A Viruses and Subtypes and People Should Get or Not Receive The Flu Shot(TIV)

Note: This is an old article which I published on April 29, 2013
An influenza A H7N9 virus as viewed through an electron microscope. Both filaments and spheres are observed in these photos.


Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

Human infections with a new avian influenza A (H7N9) virus continue to be reported in China. The virus has been detected in poultry in China as well. While mild illness in human cases has been seen, most patients have had severe respiratory illness and some people have died. No cases of H7N9 outside of China have been reported. The new H7N9 virus has not been detected in people or birds in the United States.
An investigation by Chinese authorities is ongoing. Many of the people infected with H7N9 are reported to have had contact with poultry. However some cases reportedly have not had such contact. Close contacts of confirmed H7N9 patients are being followed to determine whether any human-to-human spread of H7N9 is occurring. No sustained person-to-person spread of the H7N9 virus has been found at this time.
Human infections with avian influenza (AI, or “bird flu”) are rare but do occur, most commonly after exposure to infected poultry (Bird-to-human spread). Limited person-to-person spread of bird flu is thought to have occurred rarely in the past, most notably with avian influenza A (H5N1). Based on this previous experience, some limited human-to-human spread of this H7N9 virus would not be surprising. Most important, however, is that this transmission not be sustained (ongoing).
Influenza viruses constantly change and it’s possible that this virus could become able to easily and sustainably spread between people, triggering a pandemic. CDC is following this situation closely and coordinating with domestic and international partners. CDC takes routine preparedness actions whenever a new virus with pandemic potential is identified, including developing a candidate vaccine virus to make a vaccine if it were to be needed. CDC also has issued guidance to clinicians and public health authorities in the United States, as well as provided information for people traveling to China. This is an evolving situation and there is still much to learn. CDC will provide updated information as it becomes available.

Influenza Type A Viruses and Subtypes

There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B and C. Human influenza A and B viruses cause seasonal epidemics, generally between October and May, of disease in the United States.
Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for all known influenza type A viruses - particularly certain wild ducks, geese, swans, gulls, shorebirds and terns. Influenza type A viruses can infect people, birds, pigs, horses, dogs, marine mammals, and other animals. Influenza type A viruses are divided into subtypes on the basis of two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). For example, an “H7N2 virus” designates an influenza A virus subtype that has an HA 7 protein and an NA 2 protein. Similarly an “H5N1” virus has an HA 5 protein and an NA 1 protein. There are 17 known HA subtypes and 10 known NA subtypes. Many different combinations of HA and NA proteins are possible. All known subtypes of influenza A viruses can infect birds, except subtype H17N10 which has only been found in bats. Only two influenza A virus subtypes (i.e., H1N1, and H3N2) are currently in general circulation among people. Some subtypes are found in other infected animal species. For example, H7N7 and H3N8 virus infections can cause illness in horses, and H3N8 virus infection can also cause illness in dogs.
Avian influenza A viruses are classified into two categories (low pathogenic and highly pathogenic) that refer to their ability to cause severe disease, based upon molecular characteristics of the virus and mortality in birds under experimental conditions. Infection of poultry with low pathogenic avian influenza A (LPAI) viruses may cause no disease or mild illness (such as ruffled feathers and a drop in egg production) and may not be detected. Infection of poultry with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) viruses can cause severe disease with high mortality. Both HPAI and LPAI viruses can spread rapidly through poultry flocks. HPAI virus infection can cause disease that affects multiple internal organs with mortality up to 90-100% in chickens, often within 48 hours. However, ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. There are genetic and antigenic differences between the influenza A virus subtypes that typically infect only birds and those that can infect birds and people.
Three prominent subtypes of avian influenza A viruses that are known to infect both birds and people are:

Influenza A H5

Nine potential subtypes of H5 viruses are known (H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N4, H5N5, H5N6, H5N7, H5N8, and H5N9). Most H5 viruses identified worldwide in wild birds and poultry are LPAI viruses. Sporadic H5 virus infection of humans, such as with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses currently circulating among poultry in Asia and the Middle East have been reported in 15 countries, often resulting in severe pneumonia with approximately 60% mortality worldwide.

Influenza A H7

Nine potential subtypes of H7 viruses are known (H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N5, H7N6, H7N7, H7N8, and H7N9). Most H7 viruses identified worldwide in wild birds and poultry are LPAI viruses. H7 virus infection in humans is uncommon, but has been documented in persons who have direct contact with infected birds, especially during outbreaks of H7 virus among poultry. Illness in humans may include conjunctivitis and/or upper respiratory tract symptoms.
In humans, LPAI (H7N2, H7N3, H7N7) virus infections have caused mild to moderate illness.
HPAI (H7N3, H7N7) virus infections have caused mild to severe and fatal illness.
On April 1, 2013, the first known human cases of infection with avian influenza H7N9 viruses were reported. These were associated with severe respiratory illness and death.

Influenza A H9

Nine potential subtypes of H9 are known (H9N1, H9N2, H9N3, H9N4, H9N5, H9N6, H9N7, H9N8, and H9N9); all H9 viruses identified worldwide in wild birds and poultry are LPAI viruses. H9N2 virus has been detected in bird populations in Asia, Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Rare, sporadic H9N2 virus infections of humans have been reported to cause generally mild upper respiratory tract illness.


Who Should Get Vaccinated Against Influenza

The following lists include all groups recommended to get the flu vaccine, as well as those who are not recommended to receive either the flu shot or the nasal spray vaccine. Talk to your doctor or nurse if you have any questions regarding what flu vaccine options are best for you and your family.

The following groups are recommended to get a yearly flu vaccine:

  • All persons aged 6 months and older should be vaccinated annually.
  • Protection of persons at higher risk for influenza-related complications should continue to be a focus of vaccination efforts as providers and programs transition to routine vaccination of all persons aged 6 months and older.
  • When vaccine supply is limited, vaccination efforts should focus on delivering vaccination to persons who:
    • are aged 6 months through 4 years (59 months);
    • are aged 50 years and older;
    • have chronic pulmonary (including asthma), cardiovascular (except hypertension), renal, hepatic, neurologic, hematologic, or metabolic disorders (including diabetes mellitus);
    • are immunosuppressed (including immunosuppression caused by medications or by human immunodeficiency virus);
    • are or will be pregnant during the influenza season;
    • are aged 6 months through 18 years and receiving long-term aspirin therapy and who therefore might be at risk for experiencing Reye syndrome after influenza virus infection;
    • are residents of nursing homes and other chronic-care facilities;
    • are American Indians/Alaska Natives;
    • are morbidly obese (body-mass index is 40 or greater);
    • are health-care personnel;
    • are household contacts and caregivers of children aged younger than 5 years and adults aged 50 years and older, with particular emphasis on vaccinating contacts of children aged younger than 6 months; and
    • are household contacts and caregivers of persons with medical conditions that put them at higher risk for severe complications from influenza.

The following groups should not receive the flu shot (TIV):

  • People who have ever had a severe allergic reaction to eggs. People who have had a mild reaction to egg—that is, one which only involved hives—may receive TIV with additional precautions. Make sure your healthcare provider knows about any allergic reactions.
  • People who have ever had a severe allergic reaction to influenza vaccine.
  • People with a history of Guillain–Barré Syndrome (a severe paralytic illness, also called GBS) that occurred after receiving influenza vaccine and who are not at risk for severe illness from influenza should generally not receive vaccine. Tell your doctor if you ever had Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Your doctor will help you decide whether the vaccine is recommended for you.
  • People under 65 years of age should not receive the high-dose flu shot.
  • People who are under 18 years old or over 64 years old should not receive the intradermal flu shot.
  • People who are moderately or severely ill with or without fever should usually wait until they recover before getting flu vaccine. If you are ill, talk to your doctor about whether to reschedule the vaccination. People with a mild illness can usually get the vaccine.

The following groups should not receive the nasal spray vaccine (LAIV):

  • Adults 50 years of age and older or children from 6 through 23 months of age. (Children younger than 6 months should not get either influenza vaccine.)
  • People who have ever had a severe allergic reaction to eggs. People who have had a mild reaction to egg—that is, one which only involved hives—may receive TIV (not LAIV) with additional precautions. Make sure your healthcare provider knows about any allergic reactions.
  • People who have had a severe reaction to the vaccine in the past.
  • People with asthma and children younger than 5 years with one or more episodes of wheezing within the past year.
  • Pregnant women.
  • Anyone with certain muscle or nerve disorders (such as seizure disorders or cerebral palsy) that can lead to breathing or swallowing problems.
  • Anyone with a weakened immune system.
  • Anyone in close contact with someone whose immune system is so weak they require care in a protected environment (such as a bone marrow transplant unit). Close contacts of other people with a weakened immune system (such as those with HIV) may receive LAIV. Healthcare personnel in neonatal intensive care units or oncology clinics may receive LAIV.
  • Children or adolescents on long-term aspirin treatment.
  • People with a history of Guillain–Barré Syndrome (a severe paralytic illness, also called GBS) that occurred after receiving influenza vaccine and who are not at risk for severe illness from influenza should generally not receive vaccine. Tell your doctor if you ever had Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Your doctor will help you decide whether the vaccine is recommended for you.
  • Your doctor will help you decide whether the vaccine is recommended for you.
  • Tell your doctor if you have gotten any other vaccines in the past 4 weeks.
  • Anyone with a nasal condition serious enough to make breathing difficult, such as a very stuffy nose, should get the flu shot instead.
  • People who are moderately or severely ill with or without fever should usually wait until they recover before getting flu vaccine. If you are ill, talk to your doctor about whether to reschedule the vaccination. People with a mild illness can usually get the vaccine.
  • Source:http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/whoshouldvax.htm
  • CDC Says “Take 3” Actions To Fight The Flu

     My Note, Please click link source in all the articles for complte information and further explanation http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/preventing.htm
  • H7N9 Outbreak Characterization

  • H7N9 infections in people and poultry in a certain country                                              My Note: I did not mention the name of the country mentioned in the article since nobody wants to have any form or kind of virus outbreak. I just want to make public awareness without misconceptions only facts by the researcher in the this source.
  • Sporadic infections in humans; many with poultry exposure
  • No sustained or community transmission
  • Investigation ongoing
  • Click Credit/ Source: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/h7n9-virus.htm

Saturday, April 27, 2013

15 Spectacular Tricks for your Body




15 SPECTACULAR TRICKS FOR YOUR BODY......

1.) If you've got an itch in your throat, scratch your ear. When the nerves in the ear get stimulated, they create a reflex in the throat that causes a muscle spasm, which cures the itch.

2.) Having trouble hearing someone at a party or on the phone? Use your right ear it's better at picking up rapid speech. But, the left is better at picking up music tones.

3.) If you need to relieve yourself BADLY, but you're not anywhere
near a bathroom, THINK OF IMPORTANT EVENT OR MATTER. That preoccupies your brain and distracts it (but better still look for the nearest comfort room).

4.) Next time the doctor's going to give you an injection, COUGH as
the needle is going in. The cough raises the level of pressure in your
spinal canal, which limits the pain sensation as it tries to travel to
your brain.

5.) Clear a stuffed nose or relieve sinus pressure by pushing your
tongue against the roof of your mouth then pressing a finger between
your eyebrows. Repeat that for 20 seconds it causes the vomer bone
to rock, which loosens your congestion and clears you up.

6.) If you ate a big meal and you're feeling full as you go to sleep,
lay on your left side. That'll keep you from suffering from acid reflux it keeps your stomach lower than your esophagus, which will help
keep stomach acid from sliding up your throat.

7.) You can stop a toothache by rubbing ice on the back of your
hand, on the webbed area between your thumb and index finger.
The nerve pathways there stimulate a part of the brain that blocks
pain signals from your mouth.(But still see your Dentist)

8.) If you get all messed up on liquor, and the room starts spinning, put your hand on something stable. The reason: Alcohol dilutes the blood in the part of your ear called the cupula, which regulates balance. Putting your hand on something stable gives your brain another reference point, which will help make the world stop spinning.

9.) Stop a nose bleed by putting some cotton on your upper gums right behind the small dent below your nose and press against it hard. Most of the bleeding comes from the cartilage wall that divides the nose, so pressing there helps get it to stop.

10.) Nervous? Slow your heart rate down by blowing on your thumb. The vagus nerve controls your heart rate, and you can calm it down by breathing.

11.) Need to breathe underwater for a while? Instead of taking a huge breath, HYPERVENTILATE before you go under, by taking a bunch of short breaths. That'll trick your brain into thinking it has more oxygen, and buy you about 10 extra seconds.

12.) You can prevent BRAIN FREEZE by pressing your tongue flat against the roof of your mouth, covering as much surface area as possible. Brain freeze happens because the nerves in the roof of your mouth get extremely cold, so your brain thinks your whole body is cold. It compensates by overheating which causes your head to hurt. By warming up the roof of your mouth, you'll chill your brain and feel better.

13.) If your hand falls asleep, rock your head from side to side. That'll wake your hand or arm up in less than a minute. Your hand falls asleep because of the nerves in your neck compressing so loosening your neck is the cure. If your foot falls asleep, that's governed by nerves lower in the body, so you need to stand up and walk around.

14.) Finally, this one's totally USELESS, but a nice trick. Have someone stick their arm out to the side, straight, palm down. Press down on his wrist with two fingers. He'll resist, and his arm will stay horizontal. Then, have him put his foot on a surface that's half an inch off the ground, like a stack of magazines, and do the trick again. Because his spine position is thrown off, his arm will fall right to his side, no matter how much he tries to resist.

15.) Got the hiccups? Press thumb and second finger over your
eyebrows until the hiccups are over - usually, in a short while.
Source:Useful Info

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

Boracay Island Philippines


   Boracay is a tropical island located approximately 315km (200 miles) south of Manila and 2km off the northwest tip of the island of Panay in the Western Visayas region of the Philippines. It is one of the country’s most popular tourist destinations. The island comprises the barangays of Manoc-Manoc, Balabag, and Yapak (3 of the 17 barangays which make up the municipality of Malay.          
Photo credit: www.boracay-pictures.com
Check this link for travel guide, transportation and activities:
  http://wikitravel.org/en/Boracay

Check for hotels,restaurants,resorts and others
http://www.tripadvisor.com/Tourism-g294260-Boracay_Visayas-Vacations.html
        






China Danxia Landform



It is characterized by spectacular red cliffs and a range of erosional landforms, including dramatic natural pillars, towers, ravines, valleys and waterfalls. The process of its development is characterized by a particular rock sequence, tectonic background, climatic conditions, erosional processes and landforms and these processes have been presented as an interim model.
Danxia Landform 丹霞地貌 |
source:www.flickr.com 
 located in Zhangye, Gansu Province.


Brief Description    

  China Danxia is the name given in China to landscapes developed on continental red terrigenous sedimentary beds influenced by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion). The inscribed site comprises six areas found in the sub-tropical zone of south-west China. They are characterized by spectacular red cliffs and a range of erosional landforms, including dramatic natural pillars, towers, ravines, valleys and waterfalls. These rugged landscapes have helped to conserve sub-tropical broad-leaved evergreen forests, and host many species of flora and fauna, about 400 of which are considered rare or threatened.


Brief synthesis
China Danxia is a serial property comprising six component parts (Chishui, Taining, Langshan, Danxiashan, Longhushan, and Jianglangshan) found in the sub-tropical zone of south-eastern China within approximately 1700 km crescent shaped arc from Guizhou Province in the west to Zhejiang Province in the east.
China Danxia is the name given in China to landscapes developed on continental red terrigenous sedimentary beds influenced by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion). It is characterised by spectacular red cliffs and a range of erosional landforms, including dramatic natural pillars, towers, ravines, valleys and waterfalls. The process of its development is characterised by a particular rock sequence, tectonic background, climatic conditions, erosional processes and landforms and these processes have been presented as an interim model.
Due to the combined endogenic (tectonic uplift) and exogenic (climatic, erosion, weathering) forces, and other factors, the Danxia landforms have been developed in red sedimentary sequences continuously from the Neogene until the present.  The six component parts represent the most important examples of "least eroded" to "most eroded" Danxia landforms, providing a range of different aspects of the phenomenon, and illustrate both the range of landforms in relation to the forces and processes that formed them, together with a range of associated landscapes.              
 source: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1335

Sunday, April 21, 2013

Alexdrandria, Egypt and Boston MA U.S.A. Beautiful Scenery

                                                                                                                      
Photo: Impressive sand sculpture spotted at the New England Sand Sculpting Festival on Revere Beach, about 4 miles north of downtown Boston.
  Impressive sand sculpture spotted at the New England
 Sand Sculpting Festival on Revere Beach, about 4 miles north of downtown Boston.


  Cleopatra's underwater palace,  Alexandria, Egypt    
  Source: yourtubenews.ning.com
P.S. Do not copy or reproduce the images
 

Thursday, April 18, 2013

Boston Marathon ,Texas Fertilizer Factory Blast and Iran-Pakistan border earthhquake


The remains of a fertilizer plant burn after an explosion at the plant in the town of West, near Waco, Texas early April 18, 2013. The deadly explosion ripped through the fertilizer plant late on Wednesday, injuring more than 100 people, leveling dozens of homes and damaging other buildings including a school and nursing home, authorities said.  REUTERS/Mike Stone   (UNITED STATES - Tags: DISASTER ENVIRONMENT AGRICULTURE)
Explosions near Boston Marathon's finish linePeople are evacuated from buildings following tremors in Karachi(Photo source:Reuters/Mike Stone)

Photograph: Asif Hassan/AFP/Getty Images
                                                                    (Photo by David L. Ryan/The Boston Globe via Getty Images)
My heartfelt condolences to the family and friends for the number of death both in Boston and Texas U.S.A. Blast as well in Iran, magnitude of 7.8 earthquake.
Will be praying for the fast recovery of all people who have also been hurt/injured/casualties or in any way witness to this sad event.
P.S. Do not copy or reproduce the images

Friday, April 12, 2013

4 All Natural Homemade Hair Masks for diifferent types of hair


hair mask
avocado hair mask

 Four different masks for each type of hair that you (men and women) can easily make in minutes using all-natural ingredients you probably have sitting in your friends,neighbor and your refrigerator or cupboard right now.

Dry hair –Olive Oil and Egg
                                           
  In need of some major TLC?? Combine three tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil with two eggs and apply the mixture to your hair and let the mixture sit for 20 minutes before rinsing in the shower.
The olive oil will help hydrate brittle locks, while the protein in the eggs will promote healthy hair growth.
All hair types — Avocado and Honey
Mask a ripened avocado and mix in a tablespoon of organic honey and allow it to sit for 20 minutes before rinsing it off in the shower.
Avocados are rich in a variety of vitamins and nutrients, including vitamin E and protein, both of which your hair needs to remain soft and healthy. Meanwhile, honey is a natural antibacterial agent.
Oily hair — Apple Cider Vinegar and Lemon

Combine 1/4 cup of apple cider vinegar with the grated
peel of an entire lemon and allow it to set for 15 minutes to absorb the excess oil from your scalp, and then rinse in the shower.
Apple cider vinegar will remove build up from styling products and conditioners and strengthen the hair shaft, leaving you with soft, shiny strands. It will also balance hair’s pH level, kill bacteria, and is a cure for dandruff.


Dry, flaky scalp hair — Banana, Honey and Almond
Mash together 1/2 a ripe banana and add two tablespoons of honey and a few drops of almond oil and allow it to set with a shower cap on for 20 minutes before rinsing.
Bananas can increase the moisture of your hair, smooth frizz and soothe your itchy scalp.
Choose the one that fits you better and bring your hair back to life!! There is no need to buy the priciest conditioners on the market to moisturize and revitalize your hair.

Note: You can make avocado and banana almond,a teaspoonful of honey milkshake or smoothie. Now I understand when they say do not post anything when you are hungry you make your post a double purpose. Source:positivemed.com

Tuesday, April 9, 2013

Homemade Oral Rehydration

Homemade oral rehydration solution






Photo source: www.salix.com

Everyone should have the materials and knowledge to mix-up a basic oral rehydration solution. These drinks can save lives if you need to hydrate someone NOW and don’t have immediate access to modern medical care. It doesn’t matter whether the patient is dehydrated due to lack of water, excessive   heat and/or exercise, or prolonged diarrhea. You can purchase a ready-made solution, like Pedialyte, but a better idea is to have the ingredients on-hand to make it yourself whenever you need it.
                                                        


An oral rehydration solution is just water with salts in specific proportions necessary to quickly replenish fluids and electrolytes in the body. The one point to remember when making this solution is to be very accurate with your measurements. Too much salt can be harmful to the patient.
  Oral rehydration solution (from the Mayo Clinic):"                                     
 1/2 teaspoon salt and 
6 level teaspoons of sugar  to be dissolved into
1 quart (about 1 liter) of drinking water (treated and safe)    
Note"  In Tagalog       
1/2 0 kalahating ktusaritang asin  at  6 0 anim kutsaritang asukal   Ihalo / isalin / tunawin sa 
 1 o isang litro na malinis o napakuluan na tubig                                                                                            
Start giving fluids early and often. You want to reverse the dehydration before it becomes a life-threatening issue. Remember, it’s always better to get the person to a hospital if they are severely dehydrated.


How much ORS drink to give?Encourage the child to drink as much as possible.
A child under the age of 2 years needs at least 1/4 to 1/2 of a large (250-millilitre) cup of the ORS drink after each watery stool.
A child aged 2 years or older needs at least 1/2 to 1 whole large (250-millilitre) cup of the ORS drink after each watery stool.
What if ORS is not available?Give the child a drink made with 6 level teaspoons of sugar and 1/2 level teaspoon of salt dissolved in 1 litre of clean water
Be very careful to mix the correct amounts. Too much sugar can make the diarrhoea worse. Too much salt can be extremely harmful to the child.
Making the mixture a little too diluted (with more than 1 litre of clean water) is not harmful.
Be careful to mix the correct amount of ingredients. Too much sugar can make the diarrhea worse. Too much salt can be extremely harmful to the child.

Health-Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection: General Information


Cholera is a very serious waterborne disease.What is Cholera?

Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. An estimated 3-5 million cases and over 100,000 deaths occur each year around the world. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, but can sometimes be severe. Approximately one in 20 (5%) infected persons will have severe disease characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In these people, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hour.

Where is Cholera Found?

The cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food sources that have been contaminated by feces (poop) from a person infected with cholera. Cholera is most likely to be found and spread in places with inadequate water treatment, poor sanitation, and inadequate hygiene.
The cholera bacterium may also live in the environment in brackish rivers and coastal waters. Shellfish eaten raw have been a source of cholera, and a few persons in the United States have contracted cholera after eating raw or undercooked shellfish from the Gulf of Mexico.

How Does a Person Get Cholera?

A person can get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the feces of an infected person that contaminates water and/or food. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water. The disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another; therefore, casual contact with an infected person is not a risk for becoming ill.


What are the Symptoms of Cholera?

Cholera infection is often mild or without symptoms, but can sometimes be severe. Approximately one in 20 (5%) infected persons will have severe disease characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In these people, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours.


How Long After Infection Do the Symptoms Appear?

It can take anywhere from a few hours to 5 days for symptoms to appear after infection. Symptoms typically appear in 2-3 days.


Who is Most Likely to Get Cholera?

Individuals living in places with inadequate water treatment, poor sanitation, and inadequate hygiene are at a greater risk for cholera.


What Should I Do If I Think I Have Cholera?

If you think you may have cholera, seek medical attention immediately. Dehydration can be rapid so fluid replacement is essential.

How is Cholera Diagnosed?

To test for cholera, doctors must take a stool sample or a rectal swab and send it to a laboratory to look for the cholera bacterium.

What is the Treatment for Cholera?

Cholera can be simply and successfully treated by immediate replacement of the fluid and salts lost through diarrhea. Patients can be treated with oral rehydration solution, a prepackaged mixture of sugar and salts to be mixed with water and drunk in large amounts. This solution is used throughout the world to treat diarrhea. Severe cases also require intravenous fluid replacement. With prompt rehydration, fewer than 1% of cholera patients die.
Antibiotics shorten the course and diminish the severity of the illness, but they are not as important as receiving rehydration. Persons who develop severe diarrhea and vomiting in countries where cholera occurs should seek medical attention promptly.


Should I Be Worried About Getting Cholera From Others?

The disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another; therefore, casual contact with an infected person is not a risk for becoming ill.


How Can I Avoid Getting Cholera?

The risk for cholera is very low for people visiting areas with epidemic cholera. When simple precautions are observed, contracting the disease is unlikely.
All people (visitors or residents) in areas where cholera is occurring or has occurred should observe the following recommendations:
  • Drink only bottled, boiled, or chemically treated water and bottled or canned carbonated beverages. When using bottled drinks, make sure that the seal has not been broken.
    • To disinfect your own water: boil for 1 minute or filter the water and add 2 drops of household bleach or ½ an iodine tablet per liter of water.
    • Avoid tap water, fountain drinks, and ice cubes.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and clean water.
  • If no water and soap are available, use an alcohol-based hand cleaner (with at least 60% alcohol).
    • Clean your hands especially before you eat or prepare food and after using the bathroom.
  • Use bottled, boiled, or chemically treated water to wash dishes, brush your teeth, wash and prepare food, or make ice.
  • Eat foods that are packaged or that are freshly cooked and served hot.
    • Do not eat raw and undercooked meats and seafood or unpeeled fruits and vegetables.
  • Dispose of feces in a sanitary manner to prevent contamination of water and food sources


The risk for cholera is very low for people visiting areas with epidemic cholera. When simple precautions are observed, contracting the disease is unlikely.

All people (visitors or residents) in areas where cholera is occurring or has occurred should observe the following recommendations:
  • Drink only bottled, boiled, or chemically treated water and bottled or canned carbonated beverages. When using bottled drinks, make sure that the seal has not been broken.
    • To disinfect your own water: boil for 1 minute or filter the water and add 2 drops of household bleach or ½ an iodine tablet per liter of water.
    • Avoid tap water, fountain drinks, and ice cubes.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and clean water.
  • If no water and soap are available, use an alcohol-based hand cleaner (with at least 60% alcohol).
    • Clean your hands especially before you eat or prepare food and after using the bathroom.
  • Use bottled, boiled, or chemically treated water to wash dishes, brush your teeth, wash and prepare food, or make ice.
  • Eat foods that are packaged or that are freshly cooked and served hot.
    • Do not eat raw and undercooked meats and seafood or unpeeled fruits and vegetables.
  • Dispose of feces in a sanitary manner to prevent contamination of water and food sources


Is a Vaccine Available to Prevent Cholera?

Currently, there are two oral cholera vaccines available, Dukoral (manufactured by SBL Vaccines) which is World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified and licensed in over 60 countries, and ShanChol (manufactured by Shantha Biotec in India), which is licensed in India and is pending WHO prequalification. Because the vaccine is a two dose vaccine, multiple weeks can elapse before persons receiving the vaccine are protected. Therefore, vaccination should not replace standard prevention and control measures. In addition, CDC does not recommend cholera vaccines for most travelers, nor is the vaccine available in the United States. This is because the available vaccines offer incomplete protection for a relatively short period of time.
Note: Better check the available vaccine in your Area(Country).It is best to consult your doctor for better understanding.

Saturday, April 6, 2013

Tips for Happy and Healthy Life(1st Part)

  Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a beggar.
 Eat more food that grows on trees and plants, and eat less food that is plant manufactured or food processed.






Drink plenty of water.  
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Live with the 3 E’s — Energy, Enthusiasm, and Empathy



.            .
 Play more games or get into sports.                                                                                                                        







Have time to read even for 30 minutes.













Have Time to pray and for reflection.





         Sit in silence for at least 10 minutes each day.


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Have at least 7 hours of sleep.